Gender equality in school education


  • Roberto Melchiori
  • Francesco Maria Melchiori


This assay examines a review of the research literature on gender and education
and summarises the main findings from international performance
surveys on gender differences in education. It discusses the gender gaps in
terms of boys outperforming girls and girls outperforming boys and provides
secondary analyses referring to relevant international surveys, such as
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), the Programme for
International Student Assessment (PISA) and Trends in International Mathematics
and Science Study (TIMSS). The comparative overview of policies
and measures in place in European countries with respect to gender equality
in education forms the main part of the report. Specific examples are given
to illustrate the extent to which European countries have been implementing
concrete policy measures that target gender inequalities in education.



How to Cite

Melchiori, R., & Melchiori, F. M. (2014). Gender equality in school education. Formazione & Insegnamento, 12(4), 177–194. Retrieved from

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