Formazione & insegnamento <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2279-7505 (online), 1973-4778 (print)</p> <p><em>Venice Court Registration No. 1439, 11/02/2003</em></p> <p><strong>Ranked "A" in the Scientific Subject Fields "11/D1" and "11/D2" (Education, History of Education; Didactics, Special Needs Education, and Education Research) by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research systems.</strong></p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> is an Open Access Journal that publishes research on education and training, with focus on continuing education, educational policies in a European and global context, pedagogy, and teaching.</p> <p>It was founded in 2003 by the late Prof. Umberto Margiotta, who aimed to transform it into a fundamental tool to disseminate educational research. It is an open access arena where scientific ideas are debated and spread, with the idea of fostering the interdisciplinary and cultural growth of the field.</p> <p>Following the internationalization trends in Italian education studies, the journal has started debates on inclusion, globalization, lifelong learning, social justice, sustainability, and talent as bases to promote educational leadership for the transformation of the contemporary society.</p> <p>The journal targets an academic audience with scholarly interest in education, learning, pedagogy and training. It welcomes research papers from all practitioners (such as educators, lecturers, and teachers) that meet the highest standards of research in their respective sectors.</p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em>'s regular issues are published triannually. Further special issues are published throughout the year. Every issue bears on a specific topic, with dedicated calls for paper. A general section is always available to publish free contributions.</p> <p><em><strong>Formazione &amp; insegnamento </strong></em><strong>is a Pensa MultiMedia publication.</strong></p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US Formazione & insegnamento 1973-4778 <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento </em>is distributed under <a href="">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>.</p> <p>For further details, please refer to our <a href="">Repository &amp; Archiving Policy</a>, as well as our <a href="">Copyright &amp; Licensing Terms</a>.</p> Afterword: Pursuing the Effort… Margherita Gentile Margiotta Copyright (c) 2022 Margherita Gentile Margiotta 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 755 756 Front Matter Editorial Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Pensa MultiMedia 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 i ii Twenty Years After Rita Minello Copyright (c) 2022 Rita Minello 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 vii ix Table of Contents Editorial Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Pensa MultiMedia 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 iii vi The Role of Formazione & insegnamento in Talent Education Research: A Critical Review of All Papers Published between 2011 and 2022 <p>To celebrate the 20<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the international journal <em>Formazione e Insegnamento</em>, it is mandatory to pay homage to the many authors who have carried out research on talent education over the years, exploring its many facets and realizing Umberto Margiotta’s dream of establishing a scientific community oriented to the study of talent. A dream come true, considering that the journal excels in the number of papers published per year on the subject. This contribution therefore offers a critical review of the works published between 2011 and 2022 on the themes of talents and talent education. Content analysis and narrative synthesis made it possible to identify two fundamental lines of inquiry, in order to expand research perspectives on talent education: Positive education and the Strength-based model of neurodiversity.</p> Diana Olivieri Copyright (c) 2022 Diana Olivieri 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 735 754 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_50 'Was it true fame?' The Third Mission of Italian Universities between Opportunities and Contradictions: An analysis of the VQR-TM 2015-2019 Report <p>In recent decades, the role of universities has changed and expanded considerably. Alongside teaching and research, higher education institutions have acquired greater importance in the economic, social, and cultural development processes of the context in which they operate. The third mission’s (TM) activities and policies aim to establish a relationship between universities and territories. Although such a relationship has significantly contributed to increasing citizens’ knowledge in various fields of knowledge, to date, it has not led to a widespread improvement in the well-being of communities. After examining the intersections and implications that are generated between TM and universities, the contribution points to understanding where the social responsibility of Italian universities stands by analyzing the lights and shadows of the Final Report of the Group of Experts of the Interdisciplinary Impact/Third Mission Evaluation related to ANVUR’s VQR 2015-2019.</p> Gabriella Calvano Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriella Calvano 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 357 371 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_26 University Cooperation for Sustainable Development: The Example of the University of Padua (Italy) and the National School of Public Works (ENSTP) of Yaoundé (Cameroon) <p>Much of the scholarly work on the acceleration that characterizes the 21st century presents globalization no less than a neoliberal vision of the world, which embodies an increasingly advanced internationalization of economic activities. Globalization embodies an opening of borders, leads to a standardization of leisure, lifestyles, and consumption, as well as producing a globalized and westernized culture. The notion of globalization mobilizes higher education institutions (HEIs) through the establishment of a transnational educational space, which is part of the dynamics of free trade and internationalization. Over the past three decades (1990–2022), there has been a proliferation of activities of internationalization of higher education institutions all over the Planet. In this article, we will make a critical analysis of current practices of university cooperation. We will then propose a definition of university cooperation for sustainable development. Finally, we will present an experience of university cooperation for sustainable development in progress between the University of Padua (Italy) and the National School of Public Works (ENSTP) of Yaoundé in Cameroon.</p> Esoh Elamé Copyright (c) 2022 Esoh Elamé 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 372 391 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_27 Mentoring as a Supporting Strategy for Faculty Development: A Training and Research Experience <p>In this contribution, the important role of mentoring within Faculty Development practices for the qualification of university teachers is explored. A brief reflection on national and international policies for university teacher training is initially proposed, with a special focus on faculty mentoring practices. These premises are essential for deepening the literature on the topics of interest and are preparatory for the presentation of a peer faculty mentoring experience, proposed at the Politecnico of Torino. The formative path, called Mentoring Polito Project (M2P), is part of a more complex three-year teaching training project, supported and financed by the University, and it is recognised as an important resource to support the professional qualification of teaching staff. Results about the first edition of M2P are presented here by focusing on the assessment of the training activities and on the experience as a whole, measured through quantitative and qualitative tools.</p> Ettore Felisatti Roberta Bonelli Cristiana Rossignolo Maria Serena Rivetta Copyright (c) 2022 Ettore Felisatti, Roberta Bonelli, Cristiana Rossignolo, Maria Serena Rivetta 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 392 412 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_28 Flipped learning and university teaching experimentation: A mixed method exploration of online learning environment and peer interaction <p>In the context of an international Erasmus+ research project on transversal skills and educational technologies, the contribution addresses the innovation in university teaching through the experimentation of a flipped-mode course by investigating some peculiar elements of the pilot module conducted in the last two years at University of Catania. Through a mixed-method approach, the contribution analyses the results obtained from the administration of quantitative instruments, aimed at assessing the experience of students on the e-learning platform used, and qualitative narrative instruments, specifically developed with the purpose of making explicit any critical episodes that occurred during the course. The investigation aims to relate the students’ experience to aspects of motivation and interaction with the digital environment for individual learning and with the mates within the work groups.</p> Giuseppe Carmelo Pillera Raffaella Carmen Strongoli Copyright (c) 2022 Giuseppe Carmelo Pillera, Raffaella Carmen Strongoli 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 413 430 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_29 Observation in early childhood educational services: Epistemological paradigms, application methods and educative implications <p>This paper aims to highlight importance of observation, understood as a cognitive, metacognitive and methodological process, for the implementation of educational interventions aimed at children from 0 to 6 years. Starting from a semantic reflection around the verb “observe” and its intrinsic connections with the educational activity, the authors analyse its many aspects emphasizing the premises that guide its realization, the methodological characteristics that establish the application paradigms and the tools in which it is substantiated. Finally, observation is proposed as a tool to ensure, within the educational services, respect for the rights of the child and the principle of the participation of childhood in their own educational processes.</p> Alessandra Altamura Rossella Caso Angelica Disalvo Copyright (c) 2022 Alessandra Altamura, Rossella Caso, Angelica Disalvo 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 175 189 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_14 Using the Arts to Teach Environmental Education through Self-Directed Learning <p>To enhance students’ environmental knowledge, art helps to transcend the classroom while incorporating academic content in multithemed lessons that integrate and meet academic standards. As Inwood remarks, this approach expands creativity and applies real world critical thinking skills to environmental problems, issues, and future sustainability. This study describes interdisciplinary instruction using environmental arts education, which encourages students to help community and local environments. The authors frame this experience for the youngsters by showing them how to create their own art so they can make immediate and personal connections to the natural environment. While participating in the educational lessons, students learn how their actions affect the environment, and through their own artistic contributions, they essentially become “environmental artists” who enrich the world at large. Students apply their understanding of these issues through self-directed learning experiences of the type described by Grava and Pole, and they discover direct connections between themselves, others, and the environment.</p> Susannah Brown Eileen Ariza Copyright (c) 2022 Professor Susannah Brown, Professor Eileen Ariza 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 190 206 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_15 Guidelines and recommendations for second language pronunciation teaching <p>An intelligible speech (i.e., speech that can be easily understood by an interlocutor) is a realistic target for learners of a foreign language, surely more than speech without any accent. This paper reviews the most recent research on the perception and production of both segmental (e.g., speech sounds) and suprasegmental (e.g., accent, rhythm, tone, intonation) characteristics by speakers of a second language (L2) learned in a classroom. Researchers and teachers have suggested numerous ways to apply technology to facilitate the learning of L2 pronunciation. However, many teachers still feel insecure about methods of teaching pronunciation, and the idea of using computers, mobile devices, or other technologies in the classroom can seem sometimes intimidating. In this paper, we will look at technology by focusing on pedagogical tasks, choosing the most effective support tools to achieve the best results in the classroom.</p> Federica Cavicchio Copyright (c) 2022 Federica Cavicchio 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 207 220 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_16 Supporting the professional growth of educators through video analysis: A research conducted in Trento’s preschools <p class="p1">In this paper we will present a two-year training project, conducted in two kindergartens in the province of Trento, in which video-analysis was used as a training tool aimed at supporting and accompanying the professional growth of educators. In order to support an intentional and conscious process of didactic innovation, the training set out to work on the development of observational and reflective skills that would enable the educators to maintain a continuous dialogue between the pedagogical theories and daily educational practices. Through the analysis of video-frames depicting children's learning experiences, it is possible to reflect not only on “what” educators propose to children but especially on “how” they do it, in order to understand what relational and communicative ways of negotiating and co-constructing, together with children, the delicate balance between support and autonomy and between care and education.</p> Chiara Dalledonne Vandini Lucia Balduzzi Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Dalledonne Vandini, Lucia Balduzzi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 221 237 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_17 Special Education, Music and Simplexity: Some Theoretical Reflections <p>In the current school context, we are witnessing a growing increase of complexity, given by the numerous changes that occur in a short time both in the learning environments and in the actors themselves. The teacher is therefore called to search for strategies and operating methods that move away from linearity, following new operational trajectories, suitable for children, inclusive for each one. The present contribution therefore intends to analyse how music can be an important means of supporting teaching, especially inclusive, trying to find a connection with Berthoz’s theory of simplexity. Specifically, the inclusive potential of music is analysed, looking for links to the principles and properties, characteristic of simplexity, in special didactics. This theoretical reflection is linked to a line of research that aims at a de-complexification of teaching practice, through new approaches to be tested to favour inclusive processes.</p> Alessio Di Paolo Iolanda Zollo Copyright (c) 2022 Alessio Di Paolo, Iolanda Zollo 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 238 251 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_18 Children's peer interactions in the classroom: A review of literature, an empirical illustration, and some implications for teacher’s practice <p>The paper explores the risks and opportunities of classroom peer interactions on the basis of previous literature and of data from video-ethnographic research in two primary Italian schools. As regards the former, the article reviews previous academic literature, arguing that several studies on peer group work neglected the process of children’s mutual engagement. Conversely, other studies managed to offer a thorough description of the practices that might develop in the peer group, highlighting how peer interactions (a) entail significant opportunities for children’s learning and development, but (b) are also a locus where children might exclude other classmates. This recognition is further demonstrated through an empirical illustration based on data collected during the ethnographic research. Setting out from this appraisal of previous literature and empirical data, the article outlines the pedagogical relevance of peer interactions in the classroom and delineates its implications for teachers’ professional practice.</p> Nicola Nasi Copyright (c) 2022 Nicola Nasi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 252 264 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_19 Reading and understanding printed and digital texts: Towards a semiotically integrated didactics <p>The contribution addresses the problem of the relationship between paper and digital texts, underlining the relevant characteristics of both and their functionality within the teaching-learning processes, and describes the results of a research conducted on how young readers are related to the reading of written and digital texts. The study shows that readers of paper texts claim to have been initiated to reading by family or other members of their social circle, while those of digital texts say they have been scarcely encouraged to read paper texts. Almost all the children stressed the importance of decoding paper texts and reported discussing what they read with other interested readers. From what emerged from the research it is clear that schools are called to expand the forms of design of integrated reading spaces if you want to encourage children to appreciate texts of different kinds and to enhance the wide range of ways in which they are understood.</p> Alessandra Natalini Fabio Orecchio Copyright (c) 2022 Alessandra Natalini, Fabio Orecchio 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 265 284 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_20 Acqualunquecosto: Music, art and sustainability, together, at a distance <p>A remote sustainability education project involving 2000 primary school children in a unique work dedicated to the water resource. How music and art can help make young people feel united, as well as families, offering them a work of synthesis in which to reflect themselves as a society.</p> Franco Pistono Valerio Ciarocchi Nicola Antonazzo Copyright (c) 2022 Franco Pistono, Valerio Ciarocchi, Nicola Antonazzo 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 285 295 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_21 Transference and Pedagogical Eros in the Educational Relationship: Affections in Educational Practices between Pedagogy and Psychoanalysis <p>Since some time, many authors stated that our Culture has removed emotional and transference dynamics from the educational relationship. For this reason, Pedagogy has to think about pedagogical eros and pedagogical transference as dynamics which always are active in the relationship between educators and students. Therefore, this operation requires a group-training of skills related to the way of thinking and the way in which personal and Community educational actions are thought. Psychoanalysis could give to Pedagogy epistemological and practical insights which are interesting in order to use pedagogical eros and transference. The article aims to understand how pedagogical transference could be used in the educational actions and, on the other hand, it attempts to reflect on what characteristics should have a vocational training aware to pedagogical eros.</p> Vincenzo Salerno Leonardo Rigoni Copyright (c) 2022 Vincenzo Salerno, Leonardo Rigoni 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 296 304 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_22 Cultural Sexism and Language Learning: Gender Representations in L2/FL Italian Textbooks for Children <p>In Italy, several contributions have studied the presence of gender-stereotyped patterns in textbooks: many of these focused on Italian elementary school texts, and only a few on texts for teaching Italian L2/FL to young adults and adults. To this date we are not aware of any study that addresses gender stereotypes in texts for teaching Italian L2/FL to children. In the first section, this paper gives a review of the most noteworthy Italian research on the representation of gender in textbooks and Italian L2/FL coursebooks from the 1990s to present; in section two it reports, on the same topic, the findings of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of a corpus of six Italian L2/FL textbooks intended for children. The purpose of the analysis is to understand to what degree gendered content both visual and textual is purported to be neutral in language learning.</p> Carolina Scaglioso Clarissa Del Chierico Copyright (c) 2022 carolina scaglioso, clarissa del chierico 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 305 325 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_23 Digital storytelling with high school students in the SILVER project <p>The evolution of technologies has led to a change in going to redefine spaces and places to live in our life. Media languages and technologies can become a valid tool to promote a critical and conscious reflection towards digital. Therefore, in this contribution, the research activity carried out within the project called SILVER. The project main objective is to promote community welfare through the development of empowerment in young and old people belonging to the Settimo Torinese area. Specifically, we will focus on the first phase of the project, which provided the realization of narrative workshop with young high school students in the Settimo Torinese area, during the 2020 lock down.</p> Melania Talarico Barbara Bruschi Manuela Repetto Copyright (c) 2022 Melania Talarico, Barbara Bruschi, Manuela Repetto 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 326 342 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_24 The voice of the image: Theoretical considerations and practical experiences in the use of photography as analytical and practical tool in research and education <p style="font-weight: 400;">This contribution explores a practice of educational research, the use of visual data, as a strategy for researching and reflecting on one’s own ways of perception and analysis of educational experiences. The use of images, as in the practice of photovoice, combined with descriptive captions and group discussions is a valuable tool for developing a reflective and open gaze and a pedagogical stance of a responsible educator-researcher in documenting and analysing educational experiences. Within educational research, visual data provide access to a participatory and active dimension and, accompanied by photo captions and discussions, enable theory and practice to be held together and the relationship between context, subjects and readers to be addressed, recognising the self-educational and awareness-raising effect for those who collect and write the data.</p> Cinzia Zadra Gerwald Wallnöfer Copyright (c) 2022 Cinzia Zadra, Gerwald Wallnöfer 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 343 355 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_25 Educational Crisis and Scientific Design in Education <p>The paper examines two types of educational crisis. The first type crisis as a transition in the ethicality of a social community. And the crisis of the second type as a fading of ethicality. Pedagogical responses to these types of crises are also examined.</p> Massimo Baldacci Copyright (c) 2022 Massimo Baldacci 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 002 011 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_01 Evaluation in practice: The relation between practicum and trainees' evaluative knowledge and skills <p>The practicum is the training activity that characterizes the qualifying degree courses as it supports, with the laboratories, the ‘practical knowledge’ construction that is necessary for future professionalism to grow. Specifically, practicum should encourage the reflection on the activities, in terms of planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching interventions. The work reports a study conducted at the Universities of Bergamo and Reggio Calabria on the practicum of the Primary Education Sciences degree course. The study aimed to explore how the practicum achieved by students affects the basic concepts of assessment knowledge; it involved a sample of 130 students and attended the evaluation courses. The investigation allows to confirm that students with more hours of practicum carried out tend to: a. develop assessment knowledge more related to real circumstances, less abstract and generic; b. be more adept at grasping aspects of formative assessment, not just summative. The proposal therefore offers evidence confirming the importance of the practicum in initial teacher training, also with regard to assessment skills.</p> Laura Sara Agrati Viviana Vinci Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Sara Agrati, Viviana Vinci 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 432 443 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_30 Soft skills in future teachers: An exploratory survey <p>Soft skills are of fundamental importance in the performance of all work activities, particularly teaching, because they are strongly related to personal qualities and attitudes and social and management skills. Even in school settings, therefore, soft skills are needed to interpret and understand complex situations in the design of instructional pathways useful for enhancing students’ personal qualities (Ngang, Yie &amp; Shahid, 2015). Difficult to recognize, quantify, assess and develop, this paper aims to investigate the self-perception of them among preschool and elementary school teachers-in-training. Awareness of their own transversal competencies, in addition to promoting personal professional growth in young teachers, prepares them to take this important dimension in their future students and design teaching actions aimed at their enhancement.</p> Natalia Altomari Orlando De Pietro Antonella Valenti Copyright (c) 2022 Natalia Altomari, Orlando De Pietro, Antonella Valenti 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 444 456 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_31 Initial Teacher Training (ITE) and the skills assessment: An exploratory survey <p>This essay, starting from the sine tempore quaestio of the initial training of secondary school teachers, aims to analyse the wide range of competencies required of the teacher and how the new training path formalized by Law 79/2022 will ensure the acquisition and evaluation of the required competencies. In this regard, initial data are presented from the Skills Assessment completed by 1735 enrolees of PF24 of the University of Naples Federico II who independently decided to fill it out. This is a reflective-investigative process that paves the way for the construction of the Teaching Portfolio.</p> Rosaria Capobianco Copyright (c) 2022 Rosaria Capobianco 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 457 474 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_32 Innovating higher education didactics with a Hybrid Blended Learning Solution: A design-based research project for the initial training of teachers <p>The university experience of the pandemic period was fraught with critical issues, but it was also an opportunity to experience digital didactics and learn about its potential. This paper presents a research carried out in academic year 2021-22 in relation to the Teaching Innovation Project for the adoption of a Hybrid Blended Learning Solution (HBLS) model in the master’s degree Course in Primary Education Sciences. Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to higher education (HE) teachers and students investigating their perceptions of both the HBLS’ effectiveness/quality and its sustainability. Overall, 19 HE teachers (100%) and 364 students (54%) responded to the questionnaire. In both groups, data showed a positive trend of appreciation of the HBLS experience, both in relation to educational quality and sustainability. In a comparative analysis, the perceptions of both samples on sustainability and quality of ICT integration in HBLS aligned. On the other hand, differing perceptions emerge regarding HBLS' impact on educational quality.</p> Marina De Rossi Ottavia Trevisan Copyright (c) 2022 Marina De Rossi, Ottavia Trevisan 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 475 490 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_33 Included: Narratives of a teacher training course, narrating inclusion through training and gaming <p>This article describes the experiential workshop INCLUSI carried out by a group of Italian teachers and educators which focused on promoting an inclusive perspective within the school environment. Using a methodology based on storytelling, learning by doing and cooperative learning. Participants shared their knowledge on story-telling and representation to co-construct their own vision of inclusion. Group reflection encouraged workshop participants to start from personal experiences and gradually build their own guidelines for a more inclusive pedagogy. The workshop culminated with the creation of a game on inclusion, which prompts teachers and educators to reflect together on how to respond to various emerging needs in the classroom. The game was designed to include an external observer whose role is to monitor interaction and communication within each team.</p> Fabio Filosofi Helga Ballardini Michele Marangi Silvia De Vogli Paola Venuti Copyright (c) 2022 Fabio Filosofi, Helga Ballardini, Michele Marangi, Silvia De Vogli, Paola Venuti 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 491 511 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_34 What do teachers say? A quantitative-qualitative analysis of their reactions to a training experience <p>The paper presents the evaluation research that evaluated a training experience on teaching innovation involving middle and high school teachers. The paper focuses on the ongoing evaluation of meetings to share a learning-teaching cycle developed on a cognitive challenge addressed to students. The paper considers the results of quantitative and qualitative analyses that evaluated teachers’ reactions to meetings process and content, as well as in general and overall terms. The results conclude that the teachers’ reactions were very positive. The results also corroborate the training choices made, in line with the literature on key elements of effective teacher continuous professional development. Although the overall appraisal was positive, teachers nevertheless highlighted some critical aspects intrinsic and extrinsic to the training experience. The critical issues highlighted allow the definition of aspects to be improved in the future.</p> Laura Carlotta Foschi Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Carlotta Foschi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 512 530 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_35 Describing and Valuing Learning: Proposals and Experiences from STEM <p>This article presents some thoughts concerning the competence “Analyse and interpret data and draw appropriate conclusions” and to the way STEM could contribute to such competence. The fieldwork of reference is that of an Italian Lower Secondary School. Investigative questions bear on the way the ability to interpret data and information is developed, the way such ability is used to draw conclusions, and the nature of the processes enacted by students in this sense. Furthermore, during the design of teaching activities, it emerged how important it is to identify links and shared processes between different STEM subjects, as well as the need to adopt appropriate instruments to observe and assess competence.</p> Daniela Lazzaro Alessia Brunetta Copyright (c) 2022 Daniela Lazzaro, Alessia Brunetta 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 531 543 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_36 Visual education: A methodological approach for preservice teachers training in preschool and primary school <p>The paper presents a methodological approach of visual education for the preservice training teachers in preschool and primary school. The research was tested in the academic year 2021-2022 in two workshops connected to the Iconology and Iconography course in Primary Education Sciences of the University of Bologna. Specifically, the paper proposes a visual learning method aimed to activating cognitive processes of reading the image. The research used a mixed method of quantitative-qualitative analysis through questionnaires, at the beginning and at the end of the workshops, to investigate the perceptions of the training students regarding the experience of reading the image, the development of professional skills and the satisfaction of the educational path.</p> Anita Macauda Veronica Russo Laura Corazza Copyright (c) 2022 Anita Macauda, Veronica Russo, Laura Corazza 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 544 559 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_37 A training model for teacher professional development <p>The models currently adopted in teacher training need a profound review and now they have to be organically inserted within circular models aimed at progressive improvement, which involve a continuous integration among recognition of the problem, selection of hypotheses, development of effective interventions, evaluation of results, review. The purpose of this paper is to describe both the technical and organizational methods that allow implementing a training project capable to accompany and translate into practice the objectives identified in the School Improvement Plans (SIP) in order to make them the subject of targeted and functional interventions to achieve the expected results. An important role is taken by guided modelling processes, integrated with direct experiences in the classroom completed by recursive “reflective activities” and, in this sense, the methodologies and techniques that, more than others, can respond to training needs will be presented. In particular, activities of microteaching and lesson study will be detailed since, when they are hybridized with video modelling, they could prefigure a development perspective for teacher training processes.</p> Antonio Marzano Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Marzano 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 560 573 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_38 Well-being and school climate in primary schools in Veneto: The voice of the teachers <p>The TALIS international survey on teaching and learning has been collecting teachers' attitudes, opinions, and representations about schoolwork experience, school, and working conditions since 2008. This article presents a survey involving 611 primary school teachers from the Veneto region (Italy), which aimed to investigate teachers' perceptions of school climate and well-being at the end of the 2020/2021 school year. The research used some parts of the tool used in TALIS to investigate whether most teachers work in contexts with a positive professional climate. The results show a high perception of work-related stress, which could interfere with classroom teaching and confirm factors related to a positive school climate, including mutual respect for colleagues' ideas and the possibility of open discussions.</p> Anna Chiara A. Mastropasqua Emilia Restiglian Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Chiara A. Mastropasqua, Emilia Restiglian 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 574 587 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_39 The Troubled History of Grades and Grading: A Historical Comparison of Germany and the United States <p>This article takes a closer look at the coming-into-being of grades and grading as these two can be considered a part of Tyack and Tobin’s “grammar of schooling”. As such, the history of these powerful tools will be explored in two cultural spheres, Germany and the USA. Even though the worked-on entity is pluralistic and messy in nature, this article will show that the educational planners’ motivations have been similar in both cases and—regarding the hexamerous grading scheme—that a connection between Germany and the USA exists. In a second step, these findings will be theorized from a neo-institutionalist’s perspective. The article ends with a reflection on every-day teaching practice regarding grades and grading.</p> Till Neuhaus Marc Jacobsen Copyright (c) 2022 Till Neuhaus, Marc Jacobsen 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 588 601 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_40 Professional development and teachers' training: Analysis of some European educational reports <p>The development of the teachers’ expertise and competences is a strategic dimension for schools, in terms of equity and quality. However, to take on this challenge there is an urgent need to invest in continuous teachers’ training, in order to acquire those key competences required at European level. Starting from these elements, the paper reflects on the main dimensions of teachers’ continuing professional development by comparing the Eurydice’s <em>Teachers in Europe: Careers, Development and Well-being</em> report’s data, with those on teachers’ practices and perceptions emerging from the <em>Teaching and Learning International Survey </em>(TALIS) by OECD.</p> Stefania Nirchi Copyright (c) 2022 Stefania Nirchi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 602 608 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_41 Training and industry 4.0: Training practices and challenges between technology and awareness (the voice of the trainers) <p>Given the influence that the Industry 4.0 phenomenon has on the world of education and training, it is necessary to monitor its evolution in order to enable educational and training institutions to update their curricula and acquire new technologies and training practices to support teaching activities. Through the collection and analysis of the testimonies of a group of 21 Italian continuing education trainers, an attempt was made to frame and understand the direct and indirect effects of Industry 4.0 on Italian training processes, methods, and training contexts in order to return a set of useful information for both the world of vocational training and the world of generalist education, as it too is called upon to confront this phenomenon. The information that emerged may be useful for recalibrating and localising educational training models oriented towards digitalisation and technological innovation.</p> Marco Perini Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Perini 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 609 625 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_42 Mind the gap! Exploring teachers professional learning needs to cultivate critical data literacies <p>Critical Data Literacy as approach to the emergent problem of datafication requires teachers' skills and awareness. However, this professional learning need appears to be overlooked.&nbsp; Our study aims at exploring teachers’ discourses in an attempt to map out professional practices and identify learning needs, therefore the metaphor of “Mind the Gap” was used. We adopted a mixed-methods, constructionist inquiry along three phases (106, 39 and 49 participants respectively) embedded into a transnational project on critical digital literacies (CDL) involving Finland, Italy, Spain, and the UK.&nbsp; The focus was placed on re-defining critical data literacy components and dimensions and identifying gaps in relation to teachers’ professional learning needs.&nbsp; The results indicate that data literacy was not as present as other dimensions across the teachers’ accounts about the most immediate and relevant “data” problems. This has clear implications regarding the need to face teachers' professional development to embrace critical data practices within a digital context that evolves.</p> Juliana Elisa Raffaghelli Anastasia Gouseti Minna Lakkala Marc Romero Carbonell Teresa Romeu Isabella Bruni Copyright (c) 2022 Juliana Elisa Raffaghelli, Anastasia Gouseti, Minna Lakkala, Marc Romero Carbonell, Teresa Romeu, Isabella Bruni 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 626 648 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_43 The influence of stress and protective factors on teaching practices: A survey of teachers in training <p>Work-Related Stress (WRS) in the teaching profession is a focal issue in the current scientific landscape. While the main causes and consequences in terms of teachers’ mental and physical health are known, contextual causes related to organization and effects on the implementation of effective teaching practices are neglected, thus tying psychological aspects to pedagogical implications. The paper shows the results of a research conducted on a sample of 139 teachers coming out of a TFA course on ICT, aimed at investigating the main factors of SLC and its implications for the activation of inclusive teaching. The results show that the major cause of stress is the relationship with colleagues who are perceived as unsupportive. In particular, the lack of recognition of the role of support teacher prevents the implementation and testing of inclusive practices, although these are part of the teacher’s skill set.</p> Irene Stanzione Ilaria Bortolotti Copyright (c) 2022 Irene Stanzione, Ilaria Bortolotti 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 649 666 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_44 Ecology and Education <p>The hypothesis upon which this paper is based is that Education and Ecology might turn themselves into "word-project-method" and that the dispositif of a critical education and pedagogy, which is problem-driven, and clinical, could support both the analysis and the understanding of the crucial nodes and crisis that characterise change in living and experiential contexts in a project that aims to think-plan-realise transformative change in mental-subjective ecology, social ecology, and environmental ecology. In this perspective, the radical and global crisis of the educational scene is outlined and some fundamental choices appear, as well as the intriguing goal of re-shaping education.</p> Liliana Dozza Copyright (c) 2022 Liliana Dozza 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 013 028 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_02 Ecological Talent: A Perspective for the Places Ecosystem and Transition <p>The paradigm shift prospect is increasingly accompanied by the transition theme, which would require an equally sweeping direction change from several points of view. On the one hand, with the National Recovery and Resilience Plan is intended to implement a program in this sense; on the other, it should be noted that, for decades, the paradigm shift has been supported by research as non-postponable. A possible new paradigm should identify a convergence of the immaterial perspective, first of all, the ecological and ecosystem culture and the rights of the nation of plants; at the same time, the education of ecological talent could guide the terrestrial places life, in the forms of mutual support, in the Capability Approach and the Spatial contract horizon. The ecological paradigm emerges in this direction, already described by Capra and Bateson. Consequently, the material convergence, technological and economic, should interpret the ecosystem purpose rather than the radical modification of existence with the mercantilist drifts of the transition itself.</p> Piergiuseppe Ellerani Copyright (c) 2022 Piergiuseppe Ellerani 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 029 045 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_03 For an aesthetic of training: Marcuse and rebellious subjectivity <p>The objective of this article is to propose a hermeneutic of certain categories from the educational point of view. It is our conviction that Marcuse's critical investigation can represent a tool of self-formation also for the current young generation, to begin a journey towards “liberation”, aesthetic and political dimensions intertwine. Aesthetics has a decisive weight for the formation of the subject against the oppression of a socio-economic structure, increasingly a symbol of unstoppable crisis and total precariousness. Aesthetics, Marcusian vision, teaches not to surrender to the objectivity of evil and to place oneself, through creativity, always in opposition to the strongest because “another world is possible”. The alternative is built through a transformative sensitivity of the modes of thought and action; a sensitivity open to hope and to a concept of transcendence that represents the real fulcrum of the “qualitative difference”. An epistemological-hermeneutic implant is used, a qualitative analysis methodology.</p> Anita Gramigna Copyright (c) 2022 Anita Gramigna 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 046 054 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_04 Toward an ecosystem approach to promote new school-land alliances: A critical reading of some pedagogical imperatives (sustainability, agency, formativity) to cultivate habitability <p>Never before as in recent years has the study of pedagogy been oriented toward the analysis, exploration and definition of tools and methodologies capable of building alliances between “possible” intercamps (family, school, Third Sector), people who inhabit intercamps, knowledge, and different cultures, in the direction of defining an <em>expanded educational ecosystem</em> as a substantive part of educating communities. The paper aims to provide the reader with some critical insights through the analysis of some “formative imperatives” that constitute the focus of a new pedagogical approach, namely that of habitability: (1) the importance of civic engagement (Golubeva, 2018; White and Mistry, 2019); (2) education for sustainable development (UN, 2015); and (3) the capability approach (Nussbaum, 2012; Sen, 2001).</p> Claudio Pignalberi Copyright (c) 2022 Claudio Pignalberi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 055 066 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_05 Living systems to the test of formation: Von Foerster and the construction of the subject <p>The intent of this work contribution is proposing a key to interpret, today, the positions of Heinz von Foerster, both for the role of the knowing subject, both for the strategies that support his cybernetics. We want to pay attention both to the enduring formative validity of constructivism in its enhancement of the qualities of the individual, observer, and builder of knowledge and to support for a radical innovation of the discourse on science, with a perspective of the culture of complexity. On this terrain his research intersects with other authors, from Piaget to Bateson, from Ceccato to von Glasersfeld, frequently ignored by "official" science. Von Foerster, coming from the "hard" sciences, felt the need for a new epistemology, open to comparison with other knowledge, like human sciences which, increasingly, during the twentieth century, went in search of their own autonomy of method, a supportive ethics of research.</p> Giorgio Poletti Copyright (c) 2022 Giorgio Poletti 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 067 078 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_06 Work practices: Reflections in the post-Coronavirus <p style="font-weight: 400;">Work today represents one of the most used and abused terms in the contexts of the human. In the pedagogical field, declined through practice (work practices) and its various socio-historical shifts, it becomes an urgent topic, especially in the aftermath of the social and economic crisis that hit the world with the spread of Covid-19. This article moves from an empirical reflection about the fragmentation of the educational in the era of the coronavirus to a rethinking of the person at the center of the labor debate, focusing on the changes and evolutions of a labor pedagogy that, like the other human sciences, because of the pandemic, must urgently rethink its action. An educational crisis that is an economic, social, and political crisis, and that cannot be separated from rethinking the educational relationship as an essential point from which to restart a new idea of work, and of organization, based on the person.</p> Vito Balzano Gennaro Balzano Copyright (c) 2022 Vito Balzano, Gennaro Balzano 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 080 090 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_07 School drop-out as an endemic phenomenon: Research on the state of art in Italy and Europe <p>This contribution deals with early school leaving in Italy and Europe. Starting from the analysis of the documents produced at European level, the aim is to reconstruct how early school leaving is characterized at a national and international level, investigating its causes, the policies aimed at curbing it and the effectiveness of the measures put in place to fight it. Subsequently, a concise review of the dedicated literature is proposed to understand better the recent phenomenon's evolution that is not yet fully defined and thus gain insight into the state of the art.</p> Raffaella Biagioli Michela Baldini Maria Grazia Proli Copyright (c) 2022 Raffaella Biagioli, Michela Baldini, Maria Grazia Proli 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 091 102 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_08 A semantic perspective on Global citizenship education: A systematic review <p>Based on a qualitative study on teaching strategies and classroom practices during a global citizenship oriented lesson, this article draws attention to the keyword “global citizenship education” through a systematic review of definitions of GCE over the past decade. Using the definitions of GCE as starting point, it clarifies its semantic ambiguity in the context of the education research, and examines how it could be recognized globally, nationally, and in schools. As the data set, 108 papers published between 2010 and 2019 were analyzed. The small number of definitions in literature proved the complexity in defining GCE. The analysis explores the discourses of scholars in order to identify the dominant themes that are investigated, and to apply the academic knowledge in the context of the classroom.</p> Federica Caccioppola Copyright (c) 2022 Federica Caccioppola 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 103 121 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_09 COVID-19 school closures turning a spotlight on inequities and other shortcomings from the voices of those in danger of falling through the cracks <p>This study presents five themes which were highlighted by Maltese educators and parents when reflecting on their experience of sustaining the education of their students and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. By capturing these voices, the study seeks to gain insight into how these educators and parents reflected on their practice and daily experiences and how this has impinged on the educational experience of the students.</p> Colin Calleja Michelle Attard Tonna Leonard Busuttil Copyright (c) 2022 Colin Calleja, Michelle Attard Tonna, Leonard Busuttil 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 122 134 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_10 Education and Employment: Two Ongoing Challenges <p>The relationship between education and employment is immediate. From one descends the other. Italian political events have witnessed the contribution of ministers who, coming from the university world, have tried to give an accentuated impulse to reforms in the field of training. But the follow-up has not been entirely happy, when there have been other ministerial leaders. Scientific research is an obligatory step in any educational pathway. And its results must be duly and widely disseminated at all levels, in an accessible, clear and open form to every possible user. Another fairly close link is that between work and the economy, with implications that cannot fail to take into account the time factor and the dominant presence of IT tools. Not to mention the necessary extension of the discourse to perspectives of an international nature, not detached from roots of a localist nature. Which finds an extraordinary opportunity for 'glocal' (global and local) convergence in the PNRR.</p> Roberto Cipriani Copyright (c) 2022 Roberto Cipriani 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 135 147 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_11 The role of self-efficacy on teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with disabilities: a comparison between general and support teachers <p>In educational contexts, teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion are considered crucial elements for the implementation of effective inclusive practices. Teachers’ self-efficacy is considered one of the most relevant factors underlying their intention to implement different teaching strategies for including all students, in particular students with disabilities and special educational needs. Although the literature indicates that teachers have positive attitudes towards inclusion, studies focusing on such attitudes show inconsistent finding on the role and correlation between the different factors that determine them. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ attitude by taking into account, as determining factors, teachers’ role (curricular or support teacher) and self-efficacy, with further analysis on the relationship between the two factors. Results show significant differences on the role of these two factors in determining teachers’ attitudes.</p> Sara Germani Clara Leone Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Germani, Clara Leone 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 148 162 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_12 Quality of life and physical activity in elderly people: Autonomy, social participation and well-being <p>The article presents the results of the qualitative survey “Quality of life and physical activity in Elderly People” which aimed to investigate the influence of physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly people. Five focus groups were carried out to find out the opinion of 35 participants of an exercise programme in an Italian center for training and introduction to sport. The content analysis was carried out through the application of the Schalock and Verdugo’s Quality of Life Scale. The survey showed that participation in this physical activity programme enabled participants to counteract the onset of physical and physiological age-related limitations; it favoured processes of personal and community empowerment, positively affecting aspects relating to the emotional and psychological dimension, the development of self-esteem and self-efficacy, the management of relational dynamics and promoting participation, social inclusion and the establishment of meaningful relationships.</p> Claudia Maulini Emanuele Federici Mascia Migliorati Enrico Miatto Copyright (c) 2022 Claudia Maulini, Emanuele Federici, Mascia Migliorati, Enrico Miatto 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 163 173 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_13 The functions of Motor Play and its evolutionary implications in the development of the child <p>With this contribution we want to further elevate the value of the educational contribution that the observation of the game before, and the game itself then, can give to the work of the teacher. The aim is to ask ourselves how the game, as a daily and fundamental element for a harmonious psychophysical growth of the child, can become a fundamental element also for adults and in particular to identify, decrease and counteract increasingly frequent aggressive phenomena in our classes/ sections. Physical activity (PA) and fundamental motor skills are important components of present and future health trajectories in young children. This study examined the effects of a 24-week mobility intervention on the motor competence of kindergarten children. Initial tests were on guided play (research group A) and free play (control group B). 20 preschool children were assessed for motor skills before and after surgery using the tests of long jump from standstill and fast run over a distance of 10 meters. The tests were administered to both groups and immediately before the start of the research, as well as at the end the same tests were administered for the evaluation of the results. All children significantly improved their motor skills from baseline to final assessment. Both Group A children and Group B children have shown slight rates of change, proving that the game is independent of adult control. It stimulates memory, motor language, attention, promotes the development of perceptive patterns and socio-emotional-affective abilities. On the contrary, a poor playful activity can lead to deficiencies in the child’s personal maturity and maturity.</p> Antonio Ascione Copyright (c) 2023 Antonio Ascione 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 668 676 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_45 Outdoor Physical Activity with Cognitively Engaging Tasks May Affect Students’ Creative Thinking: A Pilot Study for an Innovative Didactic Approach in Educational Contexts <p>Although creative thinking is described as an important factor of student’s intellectual development and it is classified as one of the most valuable twenty-first century competences to achieve success and remarkable progress in academic, professional, personal, and social life, a limited amount of published research has explored how outdoor physical activity with cognitively engaging tasks may affects it. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between outdoor physical activity and creativity among students. 120 students (aged 13-14) participated in 12-week of either an outdoor physical activity program (60'/ 2 days per week) or a regular and easy-to-perform physical education class (60'/ 2 days per week). The findings from the present study support the idea that outdoor physical activity with cognitively engaging tasks may promote the development of students’ creative thinking.</p> Francesca Latino Copyright (c) 2022 Francesca Latino 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 677 689 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_46 Didactic of Physical Education to Promote the Inclusion of Newcomer Children <p>Appropriate teaching styles should be applied to implement an inclusive process for pupils who need Special Educational Needs. Inclusion also regards those (defined NAI) who for family migration have economic-linguistic difficulties. Within a middle school a real modulation of the teaching style was carried out during Physical education classes. From an approach based on reproduction, we stimulated the autonomy of children with a teaching style based on production. We measured the degree of enjoyment and the sense of self-efficacy to verify the effectiveness of the proposal. NAI students appreciated the lessons focused on autonomy increasing the level of enjoyment. The result on self-efficacy perception was even more interesting. NAI students, even if did not reach the non-NAI levels, reported significant level. The teaching style is an important factor in educational process. The modulation of teaching styles (in an adequate way for each class) is a strategy that can enhance inclusion.</p> Nicola Lovecchio Antonio Borgogni Copyright (c) 2022 Nicola Lovecchio, Antonio Borgogni 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 690 703 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_47 Didactics of Motor Activity in Sensory and Intellectual Disability <p>The purpose of this work is to propose a working suggestion for all professional, that, within the school, meet people with sensory and intellectual disabilities on a daily basis. First, the characteristics of the different disabilities are illustrated, then the adapted activities are described. Activities adapted are, by definition inclusive, promote optimal living conditions and a good system of relationships. Through sport, in fact, people with disabilities could feel part of the community and its network of relationships. Nowadays everyone can practice sports, having the opportunity to try their hand in various disciplines. Sport is an important educational tool that, through targeted actions, becomes fundamental for emancipation and growth. This work was born out of the need to help children with intellectual and sensory disabilities in everyday life, through motor activity, setting as objectives the improvement of motor skills, attention, concentration, and of the basic motor schemes, the psychic, intellectual and sensory conditions, the strengthening of relationships with others, in particular with peers, the development of self-discovery and confidence in one’s own abilities and autonomy in daily activities.</p> Mattia Caterina Maietta Francesco Tafuri Copyright (c) 2022 Mattia Caterina Maietta, Francesco Tafuri 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 704 715 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_48 The enactive approach in support of theorical models of pedagogy of the motor and sports activities <p>The work is characterized as theoretical research aimed at analyzing the contribution that the enactive approach can make to the field of sport pedagogy, in particular in relation to the re-interpretation of the existing theoretical models in this area, advancing a renewed comprehension of the embodied high-profile motor practices. In fact, we believed that the enactive paradigm can explain some cognitive typologies such as those at the base of best sports performances. Starting from a radically enactive approach to cognition we de-emphasize the role of representations to characterize the environmental dimension of motor skill acquisition.</p> Stefano Scarpa Elena Zambianchi Copyright (c) 2022 Stefano Scarpa, Elena Zambianchi 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 20 3 716 733 10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_49