Formazione & insegnamento https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2279-7505 (online), 1973-4778 (press)</p> <p><em>Venice Court Registration No. 1439, 11/02/2003</em></p> <p><strong>Ranked "A" in the Scientific Subject Fields "11/D1" and "11/D2" (Education, History of Education; Didactics, Special Needs Education, and Education Research) by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research systems.</strong></p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> is an Open Access Journal that publishes research on education and training, with focus on continuing education, educational policies in a European and global context, pedagogy, and teaching.</p> <p>It was founded in 2003 by the late Prof. Umberto Margiotta, who aimed to transform it into a fundamental tool to disseminate educational research. It is an open access arena where scientific ideas are debated and spread, with the idea of fostering the interdisciplinary and cultural growth of the field.</p> <p>Following the internationalization trends in Italian education studies, the journal has started debates on inclusion, globalization, lifelong learning, social justice, sustainability, and talent as bases to promote educational leadership for the transformation of the contemporary society.</p> <p>The journal targets an academic audience with scholarly interest in education, learning, pedagogy and training. It welcomes research papers from all practitioners (such as educators, lecturers, and teachers) that meet the highest standards of research in their respective sectors.</p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em>'s regular issues are published triannually. Further special issues are published throughout the year. Every issue bears on a specific topic, with dedicated calls for paper. A general section is always available to publish free contributions.</p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US Formazione & insegnamento 1973-4778 <p>Authors that publish in <em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li>Authors keep their copy rights for their work and give the journal only the right of first publication and distribution of it. Concurrently, the work is licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>, which allows others to share their work porovided they attribute it to their original author and acknowledge its first appearance in this journal.</li> <li>Authors might engage in other licensing agreements, provided such agreements are <span style="text-decoration: underline;">non exclusive</span> regarding the distribution of the published work (e.g., place a copy in a physical institutional repository, or publish it in a book). In this case, the authors must acknowledge in the new version of the work that it was first published on this journal.</li> <li>Authors may distribute <a href="https://royalsociety.org/journals/ethics-policies/media-embargo/">their accepted manuscripts (pre-print)</a> online (e.g., online repositories, personal website) during the publication process. This is allowed because it is the source of informed exchange with peers and increases the <a href="https://web-archive.southampton.ac.uk/opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html">value</a> of the published work. Please be aware that the distribution and dissemination to peer and through archives does not constitute a "publication" in a volume belonging to a series (ISSN): <em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> publishes previously unpublished works.</li> </ol> Front Matter https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/6044 Technical Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Technical Staff https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. i ii Celebrating 100 years since Reuven Feuerstein’s Birth https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5610 Daniele Morselli Ulrike Stadler-Altmann Copyright (c) 2022 Daniele Morselli, Ulrike Stadler-Altmann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. iv ix Summary https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5612 Technical Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Staff Tecnico Editoriale https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. iii iii Mediated Learning Strategies in Families with Children with Disabilities: A Literature Review https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5609 <p>The purpose of this literature review is to identify patterns and to discuss key perspectives from empirical studies published from 2000 until 2021 that explore mediated learning strategies in families with children with disabilities. An inductive thematic analysis resulted in four key perspectives: (1) mediator’s gender, attitudes, and knowledge, (2) home environment and cultural considerations, (3) activities and evaluation tools, and (4) mediation with toddlers for enhancing language development. Overall, this study revealed (1) a lack of peer-reviewed articles that discuss, investigate, examine, or debate the Mediated Learning Experience with children with disabilities in home environments; (2) a limited emphasis on the father’s role as mediator; (3) the need for considering cultural aspects, and (4) the importance of using mediation in free play and everyday situations. Based on the findings, new lines of future research are suggested.</p> Francesca Granone Martin Stokke Sandra Damnotti Chiara Cicco Copyright (c) 2022 Francesca Granone, Martin Stokke, Sandra Damnotti, Chiara Cicco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 1 14 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_01 Vygotsky’s and Feuerstein’s Theories for the 21st century https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5608 <p>There is a certain mystery in the current popularity of Vygotsky’s and Feuerstein’s ideas. On the surface, this growing interest is paradoxical – the ideas that emerged in Russia in the 1920s and in Israel of the 1960s are supposed to be light years behind the concerns of Western psychologists and educators of the 21st century. What then makes Vygotsky’s and Feuerstein’s ideas so contemporary? The article suggests that the current popularity of these ideas is related to the almost perfect match between “answers” given by Vygotsky and Feuerstein to the “questions” that, often without any direct impact of their theories, had emerged in Western psychology and education at the end of the 20th century. The discussion is focused around three key issues: Cultural difference, dynamic assessment, and the relationships between cognition and education.</p> Alex Kozulin Copyright (c) 2022 Alex Kozulin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 15 22 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_02 Why Feuerstein Remains Important in the 21st Century: to Improve Thinking Skills and Inclusive Education – Reflections at the Occasion of the 100th birthday of Reuven Feuerstein https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5607 <p>Although Feuerstein’s theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability and Mediated Learning Experience and its applied systems Learning Propensity Assessment and Instrumental Enrichment are already 70 years old, and do not have modern 21<sup>st</sup> century looks, Feuerstein’s approach remains highly relevant for the needs of teachers and learners in our times: inclusive education, the need to attend to a diversity of pupils at school, increasing numbers of children with learning or behaviour difficulties, ADHD or otherwise, the increasing digitalisation of society, the loss of social cohesion. These are hard challenges for teachers. This article starts making a critical cultural-historical reflection on the so-called “21st century cognitive challenges” and of characteristics of the Feuerstein programme. Then three case studies are presented were LPAD followed by a cognitive-mediational intervention made a turning point in their educational trajectory: a child and an adolescent with Down syndrome, and a recent African immigrant. The case studies underpin a further reflection why the Feuerstein approach offers a suitable answer to the discussed challenges.</p> Jo Lebeer Copyright (c) 2022 Jo Lebeer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 23 33 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_03 Construction Versus Closed Analogies: Effects of Mediation and Relation to Working Memory https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5606 <p>The goals of the current study are to examine (a) the effect of mediation of Construction Analogies versus mediation of Closed Analogies on cognitive modifiability in analogical thinking (b) the effect of mediation of analogies on working memory (WM), and (c) the correlation pattern between analogical thinking and WM in Construction and Closed analogies. A sample of Grade 1 children (49 boys and 47 girls) were randomly assigned to Construction analogies (E1, n = 48) and Closed Analogies (E2, n = 48) groups. Children in E1 group were administered the Construction version of the <em>Analogical Modifiability Puzzle Test</em> (AMPT) and children in E2 group were administered the Closed version. Both versions were administered in a dynamic assessment (DA) procedure which includes pre-teaching, teaching and post-teaching phases. Both groups were administered the <em>Children’s Spatial Working Memory</em> (CSWM) test before and after the teaching phase. The findings reveal that both groups improved their analogical thinking from pre- to post-Teaching, with E1 group showing higher improvement than E2 group. Both groups showed significant pre- to post-teaching improvement in WM-- a finding that indicates far-transfer effects. Analogical thinking was significantly correlated with WM in pre-Teaching phase of Construction Analogies whereas analogical thinking was significantly correlated with WM in post-teaching phase of Closed Analogies. The findings raise questions about the cognitive factors involved measuring analogical thinking using a closed analogies format. The findings are discussed in relation to the effects of task characteristics, mediation in DA and recent research on WM.</p> David Tzuriel Copyright (c) 2022 David Tzuriel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 34 49 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_04 "Brain training": Two Types of Approaches to Intervention, and Two Approaches to Evaluation https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5605 <p>This paper explores a 2016 paper published by Simons and colleagues on the efficacy of ‘brain training’ programs, in relation to the Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment program for teaching thinking. It compares the focus of this Simons paper on interventions with commercial brain training software, with the broad Feuerstein intervention aimed at structural cognitive modifiability. Two approaches to evaluation are discussed. This paper suggests an alternative set of criteria for evaluating effectiveness to the “gold standard” traditional clinical experimental design criteria used in the Simons paper. This is the criteria put forward by Sternberg for evaluating intellectual skill training interventions. It applies these Sternberg criteria systematically to the review by Simons and colleagues and to the Feuerstein program, citing a wide range of research literature on the Feuerstein program.</p> Dorothy Howie Copyright (c) 2022 Dorothy Howie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 50 59 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_05 The Mediated Learning Experience Contribution to the Therapeutic Process https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5604 <p>This paper proposes the application of mediated learning experience (MLE) as a foundation of the therapeutic process. It brings Feuerstein’s theory of structural cognitive modifiability (SCM) and its application MLE into an integrative model of social cognition that links MLE to the developmental and outcome objectives of a therapeutic interaction. The role of cognitive functions is described, and process concepts are linked to the model, including the nature responses (content and process), the quality of responding (implicit vs. explicit), and a parallel process of development. The application of MLE is linked the developmental phases of a therapeutic relationship.</p> Louis Falik Copyright (c) 2022 Louis Falik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 60 70 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_06 The International Center for Studies on Educational Methodologies: History of a Project https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5603 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>This article reconstructs the events that led to a widespread dissemination of the Feuerstein Method in Italy and therefore to the foundation of the International Center for Studies on Educational Methodologies, on the initiative of Umberto Margiotta. In the first decade of the new millennium, he called upon some authorized Feuerstein training centers to run a project whose purpose was to spread the pedagogy of mediation starting from the theory of Mediated Learning Experience of Reuven Feuerstein and as specific objectives the construction of a synergistic and cooperative climate between&nbsp; the various training centers active in Italy, the promotion of a research plan, the experimentation and application of cognitive and relational methodologies aimed at favoring the teaching-learning process, the creation of an internationally inclusive community.</p> Sandra Damnotti Copyright (c) 2022 Sandra Damnotti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 71 82 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_07 Lesson planning: from the Feuerstein Method to the Curricular Lesson https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5602 <p>This contribution shows a possible&nbsp; application of the Feuerstein methods in curricular teaching. In schools, there is a growing interest in the development of students’ propensity to learn, and results of evidence-based studies show that interactive approaches and conscious organization of the contents are key features of an effective lesson. A significant example of a dialogical modality of interaction and application of lesson planning is Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment. The lesson planning, which is not popular in Italy, can be a chance for the teacher to develop a better awareness of the learning process in the classroom. Moreover, this contribution argues that the phases of the lesson as Feuerstein conceived decades ago are confirmed by the recent evidence-based research, thus showing how the enhancement of thinking is related not only to the curricular activities and contents, but also to the learning path designed wilfully by the teacher. Such path is articulated in phases, has explicit objectives, and is flexible and highly dialogical.</p> Michela Minuto Renato Ravizza Copyright (c) 2022 Michela Minuto, Renato Ravizza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 83 92 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_08 The Relevance of Cognitive Aspects in the Educational Process in Primary School https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5601 <p>An analysis of the current situation in Italian schools shows an increase in the number of students with special educational needs, in particular specific learning disabilities and students with other diverse types of dysfunctions, and also a significant growth in early school leaving. The scenario that emerges underlines the need to modify the educational dynamics, adapting them to the specific needs of each student. This article describes how constructs such as Vygotsky's Zones of Actual and Proximal Development and Feuerstein's cognitive functions can provide an extremely useful perspective for the analysis of the cognitive processes of each student, favoring a personalized approach to classroom work. In 2006, the European Parliament first introduced the concept of key competences. The fifth competence, "learning to learn", places the gradual development of students' fragile or deficient cognitive functions as one of the fundamental objectives of schooling. The thesis of the present article is that the use of Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment in class can provide an effective approach for the improvement of students' cognitive functions, which can later be generalized to disciplinary learning.</p> Chiara Leoni Lucia Papa Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Leoni, Lucia Papa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 93 106 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_09 LPAD: A Tool for the School of the Future https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5599 <p>The educational poverty characterising this historical period confronts educators with the need to rethink interventions able to solve today’s problems. This contribution proposes to re-start from Feuerstein whose theory and tools such as the dynamic evaluation (the Learning Propensity Assessment Device) offer a modern answer to the needs of the Italian schools, who are nowadays undergoing a deep crisis. This article argues that, when included in the school curriculum, Feuerstein’s dynamic evaluation can be fruitful to build a new type of school with renewed tools and indicators to evaluate students’ progress. This is because, on the one hand, the dynamic evaluation is an effective tool to deal with generalized and specific learning needs, and, on the other hand, it can be integrated in everyday school practice by trained educators. In this way, this paper contends that group or single dynamic evaluations allow for an in-depth understanding of the class or the single student’s specific needs. In doing so, the educator can flexibly plan inclusive meta-cognitive interventions, thus reaching students that are often doomed to fail, and prevent issues that, when unaddressed, can become chronic and therefore difficult to overcome.</p> Gabriella Masciavè Donata Raddi Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriella Masciavè, Donata Raddi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 107 115 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_10 The Training Experience of IRRSAE-ER to Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment: Consequences for Teacher Professionalism https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/5598 <p>This contribution shows how in 1998 IRRSAE first, then IRRE-Emilia Romagna later, became the first public authorized training centre of the Feuerstein methods in Italy. Next, it highlights the theoretical basis of the Feuerstein method, from the theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability to the theory of Mediated Learning Experience, as well as the applied approaches - Dynamic Assessment and Instrumental Enrichment, in the standard and basic versions. In the light of hundreds of satisfaction questionnaires filled by teachers during the 11 years of the training activities of IRRSAE/IRRE-ER on the Feuerstein methods, this paper hypothesizes the advantages for teachers not only for their professionalism but also in terms of the relational, socio affective, cognitive, methodological, and didactical spheres. These advantages have had positive effects on the educational relationship between them and the students, on the students’ learning as well as on the classroom instructional climate. The article presents some instruments and concepts that the Feuerstein method offers such as mediation criteria, the phases of the lesson, and the cognitive map. Eventually this paper argues that the most important consequence of these applications was a renewed trust in teachers that they could bring about change in their students, even in the most difficult and deprived learners.</p> Paola Vanini Copyright (c) 2022 Paola Vanini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-30 2022-10-30 20 2 Suppl. 116 123 10.7346/-feis-XX-02-22_11