Formazione & insegnamento <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2279-7505 (online), 1973-4778 (press)</p> <p><em>Venice Court Registration No. 1439, 11/02/2003</em></p> <p><strong>Ranked "A" in the Scientific Subject Fields "11/D1" and "11/D2" (Education, History of Education; Didactics, Special Needs Education, and Education Research) by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research systems.</strong></p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> is an Open Access Journal that publishes research on education and training, with focus on continuing education, educational policies in a European and global context, pedagogy, and teaching.</p> <p>It was founded in 2003 by the late Prof. Umberto Margiotta, who aimed to transform it into a fundamental tool to disseminate educational research. It is an open access arena where scientific ideas are debated and spread, with the idea of fostering the interdisciplinary and cultural growth of the field.</p> <p>Following the internationalization trends in Italian education studies, the journal has started debates on inclusion, globalization, lifelong learning, social justice, sustainability, and talent as bases to promote educational leadership for the transformation of the contemporary society.</p> <p>The journal targets an academic audience with scholarly interest in education, learning, pedagogy and training. It welcomes research papers from all practitioners (such as educators, lecturers, and teachers) that meet the highest standards of research in their respective sectors.</p> <p><em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em>'s regular issues are published triannually. Further special issues are published throughout the year. Every issue bears on a specific topic, with dedicated calls for paper. A general section is always available to publish free contributions.</p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US Formazione & insegnamento 1973-4778 <p>Authors that publish in <em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li>Authors keep their copy rights for their work and give the journal only the right of first publication and distribution of it. Concurrently, the work is licensed under <a href="">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>, which allows others to share their work porovided they attribute it to their original author and acknowledge its first appearance in this journal.</li> <li>Authors might engage in other licensing agreements, provided such agreements are <span style="text-decoration: underline;">non exclusive</span> regarding the distribution of the published work (e.g., place a copy in a physical institutional repository, or publish it in a book). In this case, the authors must acknowledge in the new version of the work that it was first published on this journal.</li> <li>Authors may distribute <a href="">their accepted manuscripts (pre-print)</a> online (e.g., online repositories, personal website) during the publication process. This is allowed because it is the source of informed exchange with peers and increases the <a href="">value</a> of the published work. Please be aware that the distribution and dissemination to peer and through archives does not constitute a "publication" in a volume belonging to a series (ISSN): <em>Formazione &amp; insegnamento</em> publishes previously unpublished works.</li> </ol> Summary Technical Editorial Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Technical Editorial Staff 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II v viii Editor's Note Rita Minello Copyright (c) 2022 Rita Minello 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II ix xi Front Matter Technical Editorial Staff Copyright (c) 2022 Technical Editorial Staff 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II i iv Images of childhood in Comparison: Between Divergent Thinking and Technological Thought <p>Gianni Rodari gave us an ideology of childhood that revolutionized the way we interpret its experiences and with them the educational proposals. The category of Fantasy has become a lens through which to read a world that, for the first time, appeared fabulous, incorrupt, creative and, above all, competent. On the other hand, and in stark contrast, the adult pan-paedagogism turned out to be boring, reactionary, moralistic and even harmful. The Rodarian utopia begins to fade already in the 1980s when the educational but also economic values of technological pragmatism (Bini G., 2000) are imposed. These reflections try to compare that image of childhood with the one we see today in the school, among the gears of technology, in the reverent attitude that adults give to digital natives. The investigation has an interpretative nature and follows a qualitative approach while making use of the quantitative contributions of previous research conducted on the subject.</p> Anita Gramigna Copyright (c) 2022 Anita Gramigna 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 535 548 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_46 Educating to Citizenship Presently: The Contribution of Pedagogy in the Construction of a Welfare Support to the Person <p>Is it possible to educate to citizenship? Above and more often, in recent times, we are wondering about the possibility of building educational paths that aim at the development of civic sense in today’s citizen, but also in the subject who will be the protagonist of the community of the future. In the suspended time (Corsi, 2020), relationships, with their complex and liquid structures, are most undermined; the idea of being able to be actors of oneself, slips into the dangerous abyss of conspiracy, of the inability to discern the reality of the facts, praising a sick democracy. The citizen struggles in the search for a wellbeing that is not based on certainties but is continuously under scrutiny, unable to build welfare paths to support the person. This contribution tries to respond to these difficulties, typical of pedagogy, recalling the importance and indispensability of a school that is a training ground for citizenship education.</p> Vito Balzano Copyright (c) 2022 Vito Balzano 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 549 559 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_47 Irony to Educate in Sustainability: From Self-care to Caring for Others and the Common Home <p>The pandemic crisis has spared no sector of society: economic, political, social or educational. Since economic and educational poverty feed on each other, in the last two years children and adolescents have been deprived of many opportunities related to learning, socialization, cultural enjoyment and play. In particular, extracurricular, physical and recreational activities have disappeared, and so schools and the entire educational community have lost the fundamental function of forming people with solid and conscious identities, capable of choosing their own future. After months of closures and restrictions, young people must once again take the lead in their own lives, learning to deal with the complexity of reality through a self- and worldawareness. This is essential to create an educational outlook that can make them not only persons, but also critical and active citizens within a community in which everyone pursues not only their own <em>well-being</em>, but also the common good. Hence, the category of education needs to be given renewed centrality in order to affirm a new anthropology in which citizenship, participation and reciprocity become planetary-wide and the acquisition of a critical, <em>ironic</em> and capacitating <em>forma mentis</em> can guide a new model of sustainable development.</p> Chiara Carletti Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Carletti 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 560 572 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_48 Composing Landscapes of Living in Social Educational Work with People with Disabilities <p>In Italy, Law 112/2016 regulates independent living projects for people with disabilities. It is part of a cultural and social policy scenario in transformation. The reductive and technocratic perspective of social educational work is in crisis while a paradigm based on housing and its ecosystem of relations is emerging. This paper draws inspiration from the generative grammar offered by the landscape metaphor (Morelli, 2020) and from the main results of a cooperative enquiry carried out in a system of services for people with disabilities in the District of Lecco, during the months of the pandemic emergency. The evolutionary potential of the crisis and the creation of spaces of thinking in the midst of uncertainty favoured the start of a process of systemic reflexivity (Rigamonti &amp; Formenti, 2020) in which to imagine and design new landscapes of living for people with disabilities.</p> Antonella Cuppari Copyright (c) 2022 Antonella Cuppari 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 573 581 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_49 Provincial Centers for Adult Education: A Welcoming Territorial Service Network <p>This contribution aims to reflect on the opportunities for inclusion that the CPIAs can offer to adults. The peculiarity of adult learners and the networked organization of the aforementioned centers suggest that managers and teachers involved in Adult Education open up to the territory, after analyzing it, in order to enter into fruitful educational alliances. The reading of the context and the interpretation of the skills needs of adult users must lead to a revision of the PTOF to make it more functional to the requests of the stakeholders and to the institutional purposes of the CPIAs which, as a reference for the creation of territorial networks for lifelong learning, must promote the raising of educational levels.</p> Giovanni Di Pinto Copyright (c) 2022 Giovanni Di Pinto 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 582 588 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_50 The Foundations of Education According to Steiner: Critical Reflections on the Relationship between Anthroposophy and Education <p>The present paper aims to address Waldorf education’s theoretical foundations, which largely intertwine with the anthroposophical conception of existence that Rudolf Steiner embraced. It examines such topics as (a) the four constituent parts of the human being and the role they play in relation to learning in the person’s development; (b) the distinct ways in which the subject learns during the three 7-year development periods; (c) the human organism’s three components: thinking, feeling, wanting and how the educator can favor their development; (d) possible teacher temperaments and their influence on teaching; (e) the need for teachers to self-educate to remedy adverse effects of an unwanted temperament; and (f) the child’s passage from a phase of natural religiosity to that of an artistic sense, which the teacher must take into account. The research paper ends with critical considerations of the role that Steiner attributed to school education.</p> Fausto Finazzi Copyright (c) 2022 Fausto Finazzi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 589 602 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_51 Eco Gender Gap in Animated Films: Real and Fictional Gender-based Differences in Environmental Sensitivity <p>Animated films are nowadays an important and popular narrative medium that can create a socially shared imaginary. For this reason, they are considered an important indirect educational tool. One of the many applications of animation at pedagogical level is in environmental awareness, an area recently intertwined with Gender Studies. Research agrees on the existence of a marked gender gap in ecological interest (eco gender gap): data indicate that women usually approach environmental issues more effectively than men. Comparing social facts to imaginative figures proposed by narratives, similar trends emerge: if in real life ecological commitment is mainly female, also in film narratives it is mainly female characters who show a greater interest and sensitivity towards the environment. The study therefore intends to analyze some classic animated films, from Disney products to Studio Ghibli’s movies, in order to understand how the ecological issue is intertwined with gender, identifying the most relevant characters and their approach towards contact and respect for nature. The research wants to explore a parallelism between social and imaginary perception of nature and the environment, so as to open a reflection on how gender might be a determining element in the approach to ecology on different levels.</p> Dalila Forni Copyright (c) 2022 Dalila Forni 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 603 611 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_52 Save Arpa: From Salento a Possible Ecosystem-based Bottom-up Transformation Reflecting the Interplay of Inaction and Participation, Individualism and Community-building <p>The Civic Committee “Save Arpa”, founded in 2018 to contrast an excavation project in the countryside of Alezio, near the Regional Natural Park of Punta Pizzo in Gallipoli, in the western side of Salentine Peninsula, is an interesting case-study owing to its flexible and adaptive structure and as a striking example of the participation and cooperation patterns within the context of investigation. The article aims to highlight a sinusoidal behaviour, apparently reactive to risk factors perceived as an immediate danger to the community. Facing a serious and grave threat or thus perceived, different subjects in competition with each other converge towards a common objective, starting to cooperate; at the same time the activation level of all subjects involved rises significantly. The contingent nature of this activation reveals a process of community-building in a strongly defensive key. Nevertheless, an ecosystem-based and integrated insight is not absent in the Committee’s narration. For this reason, the proposal coming from “L’Albero” Association, supported by the University of Salento, may modify the aforementioned patterns of behaviour towards an ecosystemic coevolution, stabilising on a higher level of participation and cooperation the community-building processes, in order to generate models of social and human development consistent with the expectations and needs of the community.</p> Angela Maria Luce Giorgino Copyright (c) 2022 Angela Maria Luce Giorgino 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 612 620 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_53 Citizenship Education During Digital Transformation: Post-pandemic Scenario as a Time of Pedagogical Reflection to an Onlife Civic Experience <p>Through a reinterpretation of the concept of intercampo considering digital transformation, the contribution highlights the presence of opportunities, in this changing period, in particular with respect to political education. In modern society, increasingly neural and interactive, the school struggles to consider the active role of digital technology. In digital prospective, the pandemic situation has increased the difficulties, putting forward the actions to the reflections. The school today needs a digital citizenship education set in the concreteness of humanity and attention to the public good, capable of giving life to social processes of fraternity and justice for all that define a modern political charity (Enciclica Fratelli Tutti, 2020). The aim for the pedagogy is to inhabit the gap, directing the education of digital citizen considering at the same time the relational dynamics in the classroom and the value of online experiences, according to a principle of recognition and constructive interchange.</p> Francesco Pizzolorusso Copyright (c) 2022 Francesco Pizzolorusso 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 621 629 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_54 An Ecosystemic Reading and the Perspective of a Capability Learnfare: The Observatory on Training Processes and Territorial Analysis as a Pedagogical Model of Transformative Resilience <p>The article aims to testify to the ten-year experience of research-action and training carried out by the Observatory on Training Processes and Territorial Analysis of the University of Salerno, founded and directed by Prof. E. Mannese. Starting from the examination of this experience and through reflection on the methodological framework and the projects implemented, the characterizing elements that have ensured its stability and success are identified in order to propose a hypothesis of a training ecosystem. Pedagogical model of transformative resilience outlined is structured around six principles: multipolar agency, generativity and transformativity, territories conceived as learningland, learning and territorial capital, capabilities for the development of talents and territories, the metaphor of the border. These principles are consistent with a series of fundamental characteristics common to the main theoretical and educational approaches present in the literature. They are the basis of the definition of a core set aimed at guiding the promotion and development of generative pedagogical devices, transformative research-action models and capability learnfare systems, for the development of talents and territories.</p> Maria Ricciardi Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Ricciardi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 630 643 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_55 Capabilities Welfare: Educational Response to Challenge Post-pandemic Poverties <p>The pandemic situation has fueled numerous debates and reflections not only in the health but also in the educational field. The period of multiple crisis we are going through shows with increasingly clear scientific evidence that the welfare paradigm is no longer able to offer adequate responses to the new post-pandemic challenges. It is necessary to formulate other possible models such as generative welfare and the welfare of capabilities, aware that these transformations we are going through must be supported by didactic approaches different from those used up to now. Putting educational and planning co-responsibility back at the center becomes the sine qua non for taking advantage of this period of crisis and transform it in a period of opportunity.</p> Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola Sara Baruzzo Copyright (c) 2022 Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola, Sara Baruzzo 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 644 649 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_56 Citizenship Education as a Vehicle for Social Equity: An Analysis of Law 92/2019 <p>The introduction of Law 92/2019 has renewed attention on the goals not only of Civic Education itself, but also of the whole school system, on its being truly democratic, equal and inclusive, issues that have become even more urgent with the emergence of the pandemic that has amplified inequalities. Already the 2016 Council of Europe document Competences for Democratic Culture had stressed the fundamental need to take «measures to tackle social inequalities and structural disadvantages». The paper presents a thematic analysis of the text of the law, the guidelines and the goals in order to identify, on the one hand, the fundamental conceptual cores that guided the legislator in the selection of the topics to be taught and its objectives and, on the other hand, whether and how the underlying concepts of citizenship and citizen are consistent with the urgent need to tackle growing social inequality.</p> Nicoletta Di Genova Claudia Fredella Copyright (c) 2022 Nicoletta Di Genova, Claudia Fredella 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 651 663 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_57 Sustainable Education to Promote Inclusion in Gifted Children throughout Socialization, after COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Sustainable education promotes certain values such as: equity, respect, tolerance and inclusion, ideals that develop through social interactions. Our study investigated socialization in gifted children, after the covid-19 pandemic, to understand if some values of sustainable education are transmitted and if the presence or lack of such values can affect school and social inclusion. If before the pandemic the socialization of gifted children was compromised mainly due to their asynchronous development (Columbus group, 1991; Cross, 2015;), during the pandemic socialization was penalized by isolation, the decrease in interactions and the conflict experienced in the family (Aboud, 2021; Türksoy &amp; Karabulut, 2020). In our small study, we created an online questionnaire based on some items from the ICF-CY (2007), that it was compiled by 21 parents of gifted children. The results show that gifted children, after the pandemic, struggle to express emotions; furthermore, there would be a renewed tendency towards isolation during conflict management; constant derision by peers for the special interests of the gifted. Values such as respect, acceptance of the unexpected and self-awareness of excesses would be in line with sustainable education. The implications for teaching are discussed in the article.</p> Martina Brazzolotto Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Brazzolotto 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 664 677 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_58 Social Perception of Health and Illness <p>In this time in which we feel suspended between the fourth industrial revolution and a pandemic that frightens us, we need more than ever an ethic of trust, of positive passions, of moving between normativity and fluidity without cynicism or indifference, each of us taking charge of change. This is the ethical task of education. The School must confront these positions and these arguments, using disciplinary knowledge to transform them first into knowledge, then into awareness and behavior. Only in this way, I believe, can we attempt to make individuals the true protagonists in the management of health and illness, because in relying on the myth of healing we are precluded from giving meaning to suffering, health and well-being.</p> Maria Grazia Carnazzola Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Grazia Carnazzola 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 678 684 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_59 Towards the Transformation of Social Justice Theories in Education: The students’ Voice of Second Chance Popular Schools <p>The paper starts from the critique of the concept of sustainable development, moving towards a perspective of social eco-development in line with the democratic demands and Bronfenbrenner’s theory of the ecology of human development. The cornerstone of this transformative perspective is an idea of regenerated social justice, which refers to the model of Nussbaum’s capability approach to embrace a theoretical framework of Social Justice Education based on the theories and practice of Cochran-Smith. Starting from the concept of recognition and inspired by both a pedagogical and a political approach, a qualitative research was undertaken according to a participatory paradigm guided by the idea of giving voice to the most marginalized social groups. Therefore, this research (which is part of a larger project that covered the entire s.y. 2020/2021) has adopted the Student Voice approach, to listen to the voice of students in conditions of educational risk or school drop-out in the context of second chance popular schools, regarding their representations on education and teaching-and-learning, their experiences and the meanings they attribute to school. Between June and July 2021, at the “Antonia Vita” Popular School in Monza, 8 semi-structured interviews were conducted with students aged between 14 and 17 years old, transcribed literally and then analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti, according to the methodology of socio-constructivist Grounded Theory. In the concluding part, the paper then analyzes and discusses the emerging categories and their codes, which induce a reflection on the pedagogical model of the Italian public education system.</p> Valeria Cotza Copyright (c) 2022 Valeria Cotza 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 685 698 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_60 Social Justice and Human Development: New Systemic Perspectives <p>When we talk about social justice, we must remember that its focus is on the other since it regulates the relationships between subjects, assigns to each one what is due to him/her and guarantees dignity. February 20, 2021 was an opportunity, also in light of the effects of the global epidemic from Covid-19, to ask what has been implemented and what can be planned to ensure that the opportunities for dignified development are not the prerogative of a few. Think of the population groups that are part of the third and fourth age and that, according to the Agenda2030, in 2050 will represent 22% of the global population. We could think of support interventions, of professional figures such as managers and consultants of the third and fourth age who can develop effective plans to support the elderly in order to promote solidarity between generations and activate the full potential of those who live a different age, rich in time and experience.</p> Francesca Franceschelli Copyright (c) 2022 Francesca Franceschelli 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 699 706 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_61 The Inclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities at University: An Explorative Inquiry at Flinders University <p>This paper aims to address a current issue for Special Pedagogy: the educational inclusion of students with learning disabilities in academic settings. Specifically, what is presented in these pages represents part of a broader investigation activity carried out by the writer during the three-year Ph.D. program. In 2019, it has been possible to extend the data collection within Flinders University in Adelaide (South Australia) thanks to the support of «Erasmus+ study 2018/19» funds. The Australian experience represents, in fact, the subject of this article, which will present the case study carried out in the university of Adelaide. Following a description of the context and a summary of the recent history regarding the inclusion of people with learning disabilities in the world of education, we will report the data collected with some considerations «in progress» on what emerged. The survey, that has a qualitative matrix, wants to give voice to the perspective of the respondents (students and disability advisors), taking it (potentially) as a possible incipit for the start of further investigation regarding the inclusion of the target considered here.</p> Marco Nenzioni Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Nenzioni 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 707 726 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_62 A Case Study in Friuli Venezia Giulia: La Viarte and San Luigi, Socio-educational-training Ecosystems <p>Italy is recording a higher school dropout rate than the rest of Europe. The pandemic context is increasing the problem, highlighting a probable weakness in the solutions in favor of the motivation to study, especially with respect to the more fragile segments of the population. This over time translates into a greater difficulty of the new generations to enter positively in the world of work with a consequent increase in juvenile deviance. The article aims to present the ways in which two Italian structures in the context of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region are responding to the problems set out. The question to be answered is: are there alternative training methods with which the difficulties of the current school system can be overcome in including the groups of young people with greater fragility?</p> Vincenzo Salerno Giosuè Casasola Copyright (c) 2022 Vincenzo Salerno, Giosuè Casasola 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 727 736 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_63 Balance and Challenges to Inclusion in the Light of Pandemic: Cues and Pillars for High Quality Alliances Building <p>In January 2020 the World Health Organization declared Covid-19 a public health Emergency of international concern. Since then, no remark about school or about the birth of coalitions and «Community Agreement» can leave out of consideration this event or its consequences. In contemporary modern society, in which complexity is directly reflected in heterogeneity of classrooms, if it is true that talent doesn’t make the difference because «it is not a gift» (Margiotta, 2018), it’s necessary to focus on some conditions that cannot be omitted and to rethink in generative terms didactics and alliances building and give everybody the same opportunities. Every day teachers face balance challenges and tightrope walkings like acrobats, like craftsmen who, absorbed in the dynamics of «risk-society» (Beck, Giddens, 1980), tries to create practical models of inclusion. Walking the tightrope becomes the perfect metaphor for a good-quality teaching and alliances building that tries to give, in real and digital setting, proper answers to people full of capabilities. It is worth it to benefit from all these changes and press against all those values, tools and main «pillars» (2030 Agenda) that let us think, plan and create inclusive settings with the right equipment to give each student the opportunity to show what he is interested in and cultivate his own interests.</p> Sara Baruzzo Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Baruzzo, Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 737 745 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_64 To Educate and Keep on Training: Pedagogical Design and Competencies for Future Secondary School Teacher's Professional Development <p>The key issue of the initial training of secondary school teachers and subsequent access to the teaching profession calls for pedagogical reflection to critically question the current training offer, considering which competences need to be developed in order to respond to the increasingly compelling demand for a new quality of teaching and learning and for a school capable of generating the community incessantly. Exploring and developing these issues in a rigorous project dimension means investing in education and promoting a competent and supportive human civilization, in the name of a culture of responsibility and participation. The contribution identifies and explores three types of skills – digital, sustainability and solidarity – which are necessary to guarantee a solid cultural and human training of future teachers and make them capable of supporting the learning, agentiveness and educational success of the younger generations.</p> Sara Bornatici Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Bornatici 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 746 754 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_65 Promoting Soft Skills through a Capability Approach: An Experience of Pedagogical Supervision in ECEC Services <p>This article intends to reflect on the topic of in-service training starting from the changes affecting early childhood services. It formulates a training proposal that starts from a context of supervision that assumes as structuring dimensions the heuristic and reflective competence, in the perspective of an educator «practical researcher», able to build knowledge from reflection on experience.</p> Anastasia De Vita Copyright (c) 2022 Anastasia De Vita 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 755 764 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_66 Promoting Well-being and Tackling Educational Poverty: A Narrative Synthesis <p>The contribution presents a narrative synthesis of the literature on the concepts of poverty and well-being, assumed in their multidimensional character, considering the consequences of the pandemic emergency. The aim is to identify among the recent pedagogical literature the dimensions that should be addressed in order to develop educational pathways aimed at ensuring equality. We also intend to reflect on the role of teachers and educational communities to plan these pathways. The process of researching the literature on the adressed issues has produced a collection of 12 articles that have been analyzed using the software MAXQDA. Here we illustrate the multiple dimensions that emerged at the individual and community level, their interconnections and pedagogical implications for educational theory and practice.</p> Nicoletta Di Genova Sara Baroni Copyright (c) 2022 Nicoletta Di Genova, Sara Baroni 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 765 776 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_67 Sustainable Tourism, Integral Ecology and Training for an Educational Pact with the Territories <p>Sustainable tourism and the education that lies at its basis are related to the interpretation of UE Green Deal current heuristic curves and outcomes, which, in harmony with the 2030 Agenda, requires action and the assumption of educational co-responsibility.Pedagogy can, indeed, express an interesting cultural point of view, strengthening the interrelation between a person and their environment, between local identity and territorial branding, between the development and the quality of the involved area; this can be possible by planning a deliberate educational relationship between human and environmental development, between virtues and administrative, economic choices. Tourism, and more precisely sustainable tourism, can connect multidisciplinary interests and, at the same time, farsighted politics for the governance of society.</p> Patrizia Galeri Copyright (c) 2022 Patrizia Galeri 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 777 785 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_68 Music: from common "non language" to "uncommon" language <p>“Starting from the known of the other”: this is an indication that those who work in the world of communication (and education) know. Music is not a language, but it has some properties, one of all, and the most evident, is that practically almost all of the human species makes “use” of it. However, due to the ability not to say, but to suggest, move, excite, it can be said to have “uncommon” qualities, superior to language itself. Like the language, each place in the world hosts different music, not only in the sense of “not equal”, but structurally different, as an “alphabet”. Today’s world – in schools, this aspect can be grasped – is a world where students of all ethnicities, creeds and cultures converge. How to start from the known of the other, to really communicate, that is, to understand each other, building a common ground of encounter not “by subtraction”, but by adding contents, to grasp and exploit – making it intelligible – the contemporary complexity? Music can be a way.</p> Franco Pistono Valerio Ciarocchi Copyright (c) 2022 Franco Pistono, Valerio Ciarocchi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 786 795 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_69 The Alternation between School and Work for Students with Disabilities: The Opinion of the Host Organizations <p>School-Work Alternation and Inclusion: through a series of interviews with the representatives of organizations that have activated alternation paths, this article analyzes the importance of the School-Work Alternation (ASL) as a training activity that becomes an integral part of the life of people with disabilities and what factors can contribute to a positive experience both for the student and for the context. The contribution also indicates the prospects for future research.</p> Emanuela Zappella Copyright (c) 2022 Emanuela Zappella 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 796 805 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_70 Attitudes of Teachers Relating to School Morale Atmosphere: Empirical Research <p>Commencing with the definition of school moral atmosphere, this essay presents first results of an empirical research which aims to investigate the attitudes of aspiring, in-training, and in-service teachers. The study was conducted by means of a questionnaire entitled, Che cosa è bene, che cosa è male. La scuola e la sfida dell’educazione morale, which involved 763 participants. These included 224 aspirating teachers who participated in pre-F.I.T. training programs at the Universities of Parma and Sassari, 397 in-training teachers who underwent training in Special Needs Education at the Universities of Messina and Parma, and 142 in-service teachers from the provinces of Messina, Reggio Emilia and Parma. Data analyses were conducted through factorial and cluster analyses. Results of the cluster analyses revealed three different attitudes of teachers: first, one generally institutional, a second, more undecided in nature, and a third, which was mostly communicative in nature.</p> Elisa Zobbi Copyright (c) 2022 Elisa Zobbi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 806 816 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_71 Digital Oceans: Technology Proficiency and Educational Strategies for Citizenship <p>This work inquiries the potential of the digital tool in teaching and the possibilities of gamification for teaching citizenship education in Italian schools. Starting from the Italian law n ° 92 of 2019, some limits of teaching in the field of citizenship are focused and strategies and methodologies are analyzed starting from the training of teachers in the development of digital skills, as indicated by the European Recommendations for the optimization of teaching and learning process and for the promotion of the interaction of fully inclusive educational contexts. Furthermore, as a strategy of choice, the suggestion that comes from gamification and the creation of innovative learning environments in highlighted, structured in accordance with internal motivation of the learner, stimulated by the interactive and collaborative modes of the video game and, often, forgotten by traditional teaching.</p> Silverstro Malara Copyright (c) 2022 Silverstro Malara 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 817 826 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_72 Play the Tale: Educating Reading in the Digital Era through Storytelling and Play <p>The contribution aims to reflect on the importance and, above all, on the future of reading education in the digital age. The entry into the world of reading is a kind of birth because it requires an educational relationship, encouraging, facilitating, and able to promote the growth and maturation of boys and girls as autonomous readers, competent, critical, and passionate. For this reason, we will try to outline a possible path of reading education through the use of storytelling and, in particular, of reading aloud and playful activities, in the belief that the pleasure of listening to a story and the joy of playing can find meeting points that accompany children on a path of growth that does not necessarily have to pass through an exclusionary choice, but that allows us to offer children of pre-school and school-age a way that is as complete as possible and inclusive of the many playful and educational realities.</p> Michela Baldini Copyright (c) 2022 Michela Baldini 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 827 836 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_73 Education and Socio-political Commitment: Towards a Real Participative Democracy <p>A central theme of social pedagogy, socio-political commitment is one of the fundamental issues when it comes to democracy and participation. The social dimension of education does not neglect issues of a political nature, the ancient relationship between pedagogy and politics, a dialogue that in our time holds various and many other aspects within from the economy to work, from sustainability to the strong contrast between wide- learning and educational poverty. The school, as a training ground for democracy and participation, is a place for the exercise of humanity. A context in which to grasp the possibility of carrying out participation exercises throughout the entire training course, through community educational work that develops from the particular (the school context) to the general (the life context). In the perspective of a real participatory democracy, a new frontier and ultimate goal of education in politics.</p> Gennaro Balzano Copyright (c) 2022 Gennaro Balzano 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 837 847 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_74 The Shared Duality of Self-training and Co-design of an EAS for a Resilient Transformativeness <p>The theory of self-determination (SDT) is a rapidly expanding topic, which helps us to consider personal abilities regarding self-regulation and self-determination of one’s learning, as well as vulnerability to defensive and control. Within the SDT, these human abilities are studied using different methods of psychology. In this research we focus, in particular, on the capacity for autonomy in the self-training decision. On the basis of self-training, this contribution aims to reflect on the meaning of didactic co-planning shared between teachers in smart working (Alessandrini, 2016), on the action that the teacher performs during the redesign of the contents to be taught (Perla-Riva, 2016). Working with new methodologies requires a new way of rethinking oneself as a teaching professional (Rivoltella-Rossi, 2012). The cosharing of choices regarding the content, the resources available, and their skills starting from their training, highlights the figure of the teacher as a designer who redesigns his teaching project every day, moving from motivations to self-training (Knowles , 1975; Quaglino, 2014; Bochicchio, 2014).</p> Immacolata Brunetti Copyright (c) 2022 Immacolata Brunetti 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 848 855 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_75 Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers: Pre-digital Origins and Elements of Novelty - Reflections from a Media Education Perspective <p>As pointed out by Edgar Morin, a crucial issue for contemporary pedagogy is to understand how to support the new generations in acquiring the ability to orient themselves in the abundance of information made available by digital technologies. In order to do this, a first necessary step is to acquire a greater awareness about the processes through which digital platforms filter the information we have access to. It is therefore relevant to examine how online content personalisation tends to produce filter bubbles and echo chambers, namely to expose users mainly to contents that confirm their preexisting opinions, rather than showing them new stimuli or different worldviews. The origins of such phenomena lie in psychological and social dynamics dating back to long before the appearance of digital technologies: confirmation bias, propensity to homophily and polarisation in homogeneous groups. Nevertheless, the formation of such “bubbles” in the digital contexts shows some novel characteristics that deserve to be considered: every user is alone in his/her bubble, the bubble is invisible and the fact of entering in it does not depend on user’s choice. After the analysis of the main features of filter bubbles and echo chambers, I will propose some considerations about how these issues can be dealt with from the perspective of a media education aimed to combine critical analysis and creative practice.</p> Pietro Corazza Copyright (c) 2022 Pietro Corazza 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 856 867 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_76 Teachers and Training: For Sustainable Digital Implementation <p>The profound transformations of society and the challenges to be faced at a European and global level require special attention to the development of human, cultural and social capital, which represents the set of fundamental factors for sustaining and accelerating growth. According to Ceruti, the factors generating profound transformations are globalization and the explosion of new information technologies. In this context, the task of the education system becomes even more complex precisely because of the proliferation of information and knowledge as well as learning contexts and opportunities. The school’s task becomes that of fostering the growth of active and responsible citizens capable of unifying the fragmentation of information and knowledge, of filtering and connecting multiple experiences that are very diverse and heterogeneous. Schools must encourage students to contextualize knowledge; globalization, Industry 4.0 and technologies invite us to rethink the concept of education. In particular, the training of school personnel throughout their professional life becomes a decisive factor in redefining and recontextualizing the educational and teaching proposals that must respond to two different and complementary needs at the same time: «teaching to be» and «teaching to learn».</p> Erica Della Valle Copyright (c) 2022 Erica Della Valle 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 868 876 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_77 Emergenza Covid e emergenza insegnamento: La necessità di formare professionisti riflessivi attraverso la clinica della formazione <p>The COVID-19 emergency, in addition to representing a dramatic event, also highlighted the need to review the profile of teachers and the theories and pedagogical practices adopted in educational contexts. With the health emergency, the inadequacies of the school system and sometimes the criticalities of the pedagogical methods adopted have been highlighted. It is therefore necessary to become aware of one of the lessons of Covid cited by Morin (2020): the shortcomings of the way of thinking. Recovering this thinkability within the way of doing education represents a challenge that pedagogy cannot escape from. A particularly suitable methodology for addressing this goal is the training clinic. The training clinic is an approach developed by Riccardo Massa which aims to create an innovative methodological and cultural approach with respect to the pedagogical problems present through reflection on the theories and pedagogical practices adopted.</p> Farnaz Farahi Sarabi Copyright (c) 2022 Farnaz Farahi Sarabi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 877 883 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_78 Education for Healthy Lifestyles through Exercise Education in Italian Prisons <p>Prison has a general preventive purpose that aims to highlight the negativity of the crime committed. Re-education is not a guaranteed outcome, as the outcome of an educational process never is, but rather a ‘bet’ that society makes with itself on a possible, but never certain outcome. With motor activity, typical sedentary diseases (obesity, malabsorption syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases) are prevented. The social value of sporting activity must also be associated with this, as it stimulates socialisation, team spirit, respect for and sharing of rules, and the stimulus and motivation to achieve positive goals while respecting others. In this study, conducted on inmates of Fossombrone prison, the aim was to investigate the possible correlations between the level of physical activity, body image and well-being, and the role that physical activity plays within prison institutions. However, the idea is confirmed that physical activity for prisoners is very important both from a psycho-physical and re-educational point of view because it allows them to move and vent stress, conveys important values, teaches commitment to achieve objectives, increases self-esteem and improves lifestyle by limiting the onset of frequent pathologies found in prison facilities.</p> Ario Federici Salvatore Gabriele D'Alessio Vahid Shoaei Alessandro Capriotti Copyright (c) 2022 Ario Federici, Salvatore Gabriele D'Alessio, Vahid Shoaei, Alessandro Capriotti 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 884 898 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_79 Learning to participate: Experiencing democracy at school through the community of inquiry <p>Schools are extraordinary laboratories of citizenship where students can learn to take a position, express their opinions and play an active role in the life of the community to which they belong with an openness to global challenges. Moreover, the need for a fair and quality education for all, enabling children to become people capable of acting in today’s complex and global reality, is expressed in numerous national, European and international documents. Therefore, it is necessary to ask ourselves which teaching practices can be used to foster a habitus oriented towards the exercise of citizenship rights in terms of participation in the social, political, cultural and economic life of one’s own living environment. Teaching through a community of inquiry inspired by Matthew Lipman and Ann M. Sharp’s Philosophy for Children could be the operational response to the urgent need to educate future citizens who are aware and able of taking part in public life in the name of democracy.</p> Valerio Ferrero Copyright (c) 2022 Valerio Ferrero 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 899 909 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_80 Education to Health, Adherence to Use of Therapies and to Scientific Recommendations <p>The Health has been considered at the center of public interest during the international health pandemic and, because of this, the need to change its paradigm, meaning it not «only the absence of disease and a complete state of biopsychosocial well-being» but considering it in a broader relationship with animals, nature and the environment as part of a single whole. Thus a greater awareness of the interdependence between living beings and the possible repercussions on our and others’ health emerges. The World Health Organization recommends scientific communication, education for awareness and the assumption of responsibility in terms of well-being and wellliving as elements of an enabling approach that bases its foundations on an integrated and interdisciplinary transformative ecosystem.</p> Sabrina Grigolo Copyright (c) 2022 Sabrina Grigolo 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 910 919 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_81 Going Against the Threat of Defuturization: Citizenship Education and Agency Promotion in a Complex and Ecological Perspective <p>The complexity that characterizes our society has made it more difficult to interpret and deal with reality. Added to this is the difficulty of planning one’s own life path and being active agents. The highest price is paid by our physical and psychological integrity, which gives way to forms of existential discomfort that increasingly affect young people. It is necessary to build social, political and cultural networks capable of dealing with existential discomfort. From this point of view, education must become a moment of «cultivation and care» in order to deal with the poverty of skills that limits our agency. The challenge is to rethink school curricula that, starting from the promotion of cognitive, emotional, social and cultural competencies, outline the principles of an education capable of allowing being to flourish in all its possible existential directions.</p> Annalisa Quinto Copyright (c) 2022 Annalisa Quinto 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 920 928 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_82 Visual System and Posture: Influences on Developmental Dyslexia - Systematic Review <p>The great increase of diagnoses of developmental dyslexia has been the purpose of this review. Its goal is to evaluate scientific studies which research the influence of sight and posture on developmental dyslexia; considering its neurobiological bases, therefore focusing on the systems involved, such as cerebellar, somatosensory, vestibular, and visual system. Interest has been given to both components which are movement and sight, focusing on experiments realized in Primary School. Therefore, it can be useful also for Preschool teachers to mature more awareness about the importance of promoting motor activity, a correct posture and avoid visual tiredness during the didactics, in order to prevent learning disorders.</p> Manuela Valentini Sara Felini Copyright (c) 2022 Manuela Valentini, Sara Felini 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 929 943 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_83 The Theatrical Laboratory as Critical Training Ground for Democracy: Pedagogical Reflections and a Historical Example <p>In order to respond to the crisis of the last two years in a proper way, a paradigm shift seems necessary to centralize the individual and collective active responsibility in transformative and generative processes for a new start and change. The pedagogical (re)centralization of the person as change agent entails an education whose objective is the emancipation of man, caught in the relationship between the particular and the universal. Starting from here, this study aims to explore a possible democracy-oriented political education modality, which enables to grasp the contemporary complexity from a critical perspective. The starting point will be the pedagogical thought of Klaus Mollenhauer, then a different realization space – the theatrical laboratory – will be proposed, in the light of some pedagogical studies about the connection between theatre and education and considering the historical experience of the Schaubühne am Halleschen Ufer in Berlin, directed by Peter Stein from 1970.</p> Elisabetta Villano Copyright (c) 2022 Elisabetta Villano 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 944 953 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_84 Educating to Democracy: New Itineraries for Social Justice <p>The question about education, and about which model of education, belongs to society and moves from it, as well as the answer must go back to society again: education to complexity, critical thinking, responsibility for choices are all possible answers. In other words, we comprehend education as active citizenship, and by citizenship we mean a condition based on respect for oneself, respect for the others and the rules of any community. It is a cultural attitude built on values such as civil and political commitment, and an ethical dimension that implies the conviction that without choice and responsibility there can be no authentic social justice; it is a sense of belonging to democracy and democratic practice as well, where we believe democracy to be the result of opposition first, mediation later. This should be the task of the public School system, and to accomplish this task it is necessary to draw on the cultural richness that comes from its pluralism: this can be done by trained teachers, available to comparison, who know how to dismantle and reassemble disciplinary knowledge and soft skills in an epistemologically correct way, in order to meet the diversified learning needs, providing tools for interaction with reality. This kind of School, therefore, must be considered as an ethical place of education and citizenship, which guides change and transformative processes, inspired by new cultural, social, psycho-pedagogical and organizational models: a School which, as a public service, is already part of a pedagogical and political project.</p> Fabrizia Abbate Maria Grazia Carnazzola Valeria Cotza Giorgio Crescenza Alessandra Gargiulo Labriola Copyright (c) 2022 Fabrizia Abbate, Maria Grazia Carnazzola, Valeria Cotza, Giorgio Crescenza, Alessandra Gargiulo Labriola 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 954 965 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_85 Educating Communities: From the Epistemology of Educational Research to the Case of Adult Learning Centres in Italy <p>In this multi-voice essay, the authors will endeavour to prove a point on the epistemology of educational research and show its consequences for a specific case. Section 1 introduces the notion of educational research as a practical science belonging to the Greater Humanities paradigm. Hence, Section 2 uses discourse analysis to reconstruct the hermeneutic framework surrounding the Scienze della formazione educational research programme, which is currently trending in the Italian academic debate. In the ‘discourse’, communities emerge as the key players in achieving welfare goals notwithstanding the socioeconomical and environmental challenges they face. Drawing on participant observation and policy analysis, Section 3 shows how the above understanding is validated by the case of the Italian Provincial Centres for Adult Education. These work as networks rather than monolithic institutions and cater for the welfare of communities by interacting with their stakeholders. Section 4 draws the conclusions: the Scienze della formazione research programme is fertile grounds for ecopedagogy, which is corroborated by the case of CPIAs. This paper constitutes one of the research outputs of the SIREF Summer School 2021.</p> Giuditta Alessandrini Giovanni Di Pinto Teresa Giovanazzi Andrea Mattia Marcelli Copyright (c) 2022 Giuditta Alessandrini, Giovanni Di Pinto, Teresa Giovanazzi, Andrea Mattia Marcelli 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 966 975 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_86 Rethinking the Educational Environment as a Place of Belonging and Building Values <p>This paper presents the permeability and contamination between non-formal, informal and formal contexts as the core of the educational ecosystem. In the “inter-field” between capabilities and education, the paper focuses on the theme of co-responsibility and agentive responsibility: in this way it is possible to build a welfare of capabilities, such as to favor the free realization of people’s potential. From this point of view, educational practices must be able to recognize the agency of informal networks and encourage collaboration between formal and informal networks, in view of the establishment of flexible and open educational ecosystems capable of co-existing with the complexity of modern societies. In this perspective, educational processes play a decisive role in transforming learning and knowledge into choices and decisions, in the dual awareness of the person as an end in itself and of the pluralism of values.</p> Michela Baldini Maria Ricciardi Denis Francesconi Giosuè Casasola Copyright (c) 2022 Michela Baldini, Maria Ricciardi, Denis Francesconi, Giosuè Casasola 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 976 984 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_87 For a Regenerative Pedagogy of the Territory in the Sense of Participatory and Sustainable Community <p>The present article is the result of a collective work by various authors and focuses attention to the consequences in training processes and educational relationships following the Covid 19 pandemic. All educational agencies, formal, non-formal and informal, starting with the family and the school, have been involved in a profound change involving the times, spaces and strategies of education. The various contributions, focusing on different aspects and problems, highlight the need for collaboration and the sharing of principles and objectives by all the training agencies in order to enable all citizens to exercise their citizenship in an active and constructive manner. In this regard, the importance of Community education pacts is stressed in order to create synergy, continuity and cooperation between schools and extra-school activities based on local needs. In this situation, pedagogical research can take on a guiding and orientation role in the community in order to facilitate and promote the construction of an integrated extended educational system.</p> Vito Balzano Maria Chiara Castaldi Valentina Guerrini Maria Grazia Proli Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola Nicolò Valenzano Copyright (c) 2022 Vito Balzano, Maria Chiara Castaldi, Valentina Guerrini, Maria Grazia Proli, Oscar Tiozzo Brasiola, Nicolò Valenzano 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 985 994 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_88 Education, Artistic Practices and Transformation for a Participatory Democracy: A Narrative Review Related to the Two Years of Covid-19 in Italy <p>The need for restart actions, which has been marked by the crisis provoked by the Covid-19 pandemic, calls for a pedagogical reflection capable of finding the possible ways for a politics of humanity (Morin 2020) that could promote ecological transition and democracy re-generation processes aiming at an active responsible co-participation. Starting from here, this study raises the question about the use of artistic practices in educational contexts as a transformative education medium that can lead to the construction of a real participatory democracy. Working on a narrative review of the Italian scholarly literature written in the last two years about the topic of choice, the research group has selected a corpus of articles that has been read from a critical-analytical perspective. The discussion has highlighted how all art forms, as well as the cultural heritage they belong to, actively contribute to humanizing transformative processes in different formal and informal educational spaces.</p> Sara Baroni Luca Bertoldi Gerardo Pistillo Elisabetta Villano Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Baroni, Luca Bertoldi, Gerardo Pistillo, Elisabetta Villano 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 995 1006 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_89 Pedagogy of Care between Sustainability and Social Justice <p>Social justice comes also from care. The pedagogical lens gives us the opportunity to reflect on the deep meaning of care as: negotiation of needs (Lopez, 2017); development of the potential of others; gratuitousness and respect (Mortari, 2017). To this effect, the reflection on care extends from the subject as propagator of care, to the subject as recipient of care. In a particular way, we believe that it is possible to contribute to social justice through values supporting and protecting the environment, involving men and women, through forms of recognition and enhancement of talents, including all age groups (even the elderly, of course) and, last but not least, through the most advanced forms of technology and artificial intelligence.</p> Fabrizia Abbate Caterina Braga Alessio Fabiano Dalila Forni Francesca Franceschelli Copyright (c) 2022 Fabrizia Abbate, Caterina Braga, Alessio Fabiano, Dalila Forni, Francesca Franceschelli 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 1007 1017 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_90 Pedagogical Approaches to Co-evolution in Crisis: The Potential of Educational and Training Research in Highly Complex Ecosystems <p>The Era of Great Uncertainties (Morin, 2020) with which humanity has to deal with today requires competences to stay in the changing flow of the crisis that allows us to generate knowledge useful to orient thoughts and actions. In this contribution, the authors propose four pedagogical approaches that refer, respectively, to the pedagogical category of irony, to the theoretical construct of systemic reflexivity and to the themes of sustainability and agency. These approaches are analysed with reference to specific educational and training contexts of high complexity, the school and the social educational work. Common to these approaches is the pursuit of a difficult and mobile balance between individual and contextual aspects, between conservative and innovative instances, between times and rhythms of change and between micro, meso and macro levels of the systems involved.</p> Chiara Carletti Antonella Cuppari Silvia Fioretti Milena Pomponi Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Carletti, Antonella Cuppari, Silvia Fioretti, Milena Pomponi 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 1018 1027 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_91 Rethinking Enabling Educational and Training Ecosystems in the Perspective of Reciprocity <p>This contribution is the result of a collective work carried out within the «Learning circle Economics of reciprocity» within the Siref 2021 Summer School. The basic theme on which the contribution intends to reflect is that of rethinking generative ecosystems that can «enable» society as a whole towards an approach to «reciprocity», in contrast to the growing forms of poverty. In this perspective it is necessary to promote new active labor policies towards decent work, new educational policies towards a culture of sustainability; new perspectives of meaning related to the dimensions of fraternity, care, relationality, planetary solidarity towards possible models of sustainable development.</p> Antonio Molinari Maristella Cacciapaglia Rosa Indellicato Simona Sandrini Valerio Massimo Marcone Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Molinari, Maristella Cacciapaglia, Rosa Indellicato, Simona Sandrini, Valerio Massimo Marcone 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 20 1 Tome II 1028 1041 10.7346/-fei-XX-01-22_92