Grounded Theory as an iterative and comparative process between principles and characteristics: An interpretive perspective
Keywords:Grounded Theory, Qualitative Methods, Education, School
The contribution describes the methodological approach of Grounded Theory (GT) as a flexible and malleable approach to be employed in the context of complex educational contexts that are constantly changing and whose many variables constitute a rich terrain for analysis in terms of significant observed events. Some central issues related to the generation and emergence of inductive theory, theoretical saturation, the extent to which coding schemes should be formalized, and the assessment of quality and rigor in interpretive research are discussed. It is argued that GT is an approach aimed at making data emerge from a theory that can encapsulate facets proper to a phenomenon emerging from reality, without losing sight of its objective character.
Abamonga, E. (2019). Varying Perspectives of Grounded Theory Approach: A Critical Literature Review. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(1). Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://ojs.jmc.edu.ph/index.php/Journal01/article/view/1/7
Aldiabat, K. M., & Le Navenec, C. L. (2018). Data saturation: The mysterious step in grounded theory methodology. The qualitative report, 23(1), 245–261.
Annells, M. (1997a). Grounded theory method, part I: Within the five moments of qualitative research. Nursing inquiry, 4(2), 120–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.1997.tb00085.x
Annells, M. (1997b). Grounded theory method, part II: Options for users of the method. Nursing inquiry, 4(3), 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.1997.tb00096.x
Backman, K., & Kyngäs, H. A. (1999). Challenges of the grounded theory approach to a novice researcher. Nursing & health sciences, 1(3), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-2018.1999.00019.x
Bakker, J. I. (2019). Grounded theory methodology and grounded theory method: Introduction to the special issue. Sociological Focus, 52(2), 91–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380237.2019.1550592
Baturina, D. (2015). In expectation of the theory: Grounded theory method. Metodički obzori, 10(1), 77-90. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/218606
Benvenuto, G. (2015). Stili e metodi della ricerca educativa. Roma: Carocci.
Birks, M., & Mills, J. (2015). Grounded theory: a practical guide (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
Bluff, R. (2005). Grounded theory: the methodology. In I. Holloway (Eds.), Qualitative research in health care (pp. 147–167). London: Open University Press.
Butler, T., & O’Reilly, P. (2010). Recovering the ontological foundations of the grounded theory method. ICIS 2010 Proceedings. 75. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2010_submissions/75
Charmaz, K. (1996). The search for meanings-Grounded Theory. In J. A. Smith, R. Harré, L. Van Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking Methods in Psychology (pp. 27-49). London: Sage Publications.
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory, A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Charmaz, K. (2008a). Grounded Theory as an emergent method. In S. Hesse-Biber & P. Leavy (Eds.), The Handbook of Emergent Methods (pp. 155–170). New York: Guilford.
Charmaz, K. (2008b). Constructionism and the grounded theory method. Handbook of constructionist research, 1(1), 397–412.
Charmaz, K. (2017). The Power of Constructivist Grounded Theory for Critical Inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry, 23(1), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800416657105
Charmaz, K., & Thornberg, R. (2021). The pursuit of quality in grounded theory. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 18(3), 305–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1780357
Cohen, L., & Manion, L., Morrison K. (2011). Research methods in education. London: Routledge.
Dey, I. (1999). Grounding Grounded Theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Eboña-Abamonga, E. E. (2019). Grounded Theory Approach: Its Steps and Procedures in A Scientific Study. IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 1(1), 92–101.
Gasson, S. (2004). Rigor In Grounded Theory Research: An Interpretive Perspective on Generating Theory from Qualitative Field Studies. In M. Whitman & A. Woszczynski (Eds.), Handbook for Information Systems Research (pp. 79–102). Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing.
Gentles, S. J., & Jack, S. M., Nicholas, D. B., McKibbon K. (2014). A Critical Approach to Reflexivity in Grounded Theory. Qualitative Report, 19(44), 1–4. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR19/gentles25.pdf
Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (Ed.) (1993). Examples of Grounded Theory. A Reader. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (Ed.) (1994). More Grounded Theory Methodology. A Reader. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (Ed.) (1995). Grounded Theory 1984 to 1994. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing Grounded Theory. Issues and Discussions. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (2001). The Grounded Theory Perspective: Conceptualization Contrasted with Description. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G. (2005). The grounded theory perspective III: Theoretical coding. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. (Ed.). (2009). La scoperta della Grounded Theory: Strategie per la ricerca qualitativa. Roma: Armando. (Original work published 1967)
Haig, B. D. (1995). Grounded theory as scientific method. Philosophy of education, 28(1), 1–11.
Hutchinson, S. A. (1986). Education and Grounded Theory. Journal of Thought, 21(3), 50–68. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42589190
Heath, H., & Cowley, S. (2004). Developing a grounded theory approach: a comparison of Glaser and Strauss. International journal of nursing studies, 41(2), 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7489(03)00113-5
Hernandez, C. A. (2009). Theoretical coding in grounded theory methodology. Grounded Theory Review, 8(3), 51–60.
Hewitt, S., Mills, J., Hoare, K., & Sheridan, N. (2022). Grounded Theory Method and Symbolic Interactionism: Freedom of Conceptualization and the Importance of Context in Research. La Trobe. Journal contribution. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 23(3). https://doi.org/10.26181/21714857.v1
Heydarian, N. M. (2016). Developing theory with the grounded-theory approach and thematic analysis. Association for Psychological Science, 29. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/developing-theory-with-the-grounded-theory-approach-and-thematic-analysis?pdf=true
Holton, J. A. (2008). Grounded theory as a general research methodology. The grounded theory review, 7(2), 67–93.
Jørgensen, U. (2001). Grounded theory: Methodology and theory construction. International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences, 1, 6396–6399.
Khan, S. N. (2014). Qualitative research method: Grounded theory. International journal of business and management, 9(11), 224–233. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n11p224
Kim, J. S. (2011). A grounded theory approach: Introduction and application. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://repository.krei.re.kr/bitstream/2018.oak/19742/1/A%20grounded%20theory%20approach:%20Introduction%20and%20application.pdf
Lowe, A. (1995). The basic social processes of entrepreneurial innovation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 1(2), 54–76. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552559510090622
Markey, K., Tilki, M., & Taylor, G. (2014). Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach. Nurse Researcher, 22(2), 16–22. http://doi.org/10.7748/nr.22.2.16.e1272
Maz, J. (2013). Employing a grounded theory approach: Core characteristics. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 8(9), 453–458. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjca.2013.8.9.453
Mohajan, D., & Mohajan, H. K. (2022). Constructivist Grounded Theory: A New Research Approach in Social Science. Research and Advances in Education, 1(4), 8–16. https://10.56397/RAE.2022.10.02
Pigeon, N., & Henwood, K. (1996). Grounded theory: practical implementation. In T. E. Richardson (Ed.). Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods for Psychology and the Social Sciences (pp. 86–101). Leicester, UK: British Psych. Soc.
Potrata, B. (2010). Rethinking the ethical boundaries of a grounded theory approach. Research Ethics, 6(4), 154–158.
Prigol, E. L., & Behrens, M. A. (2019). Grounded Theory: methodology applied in education research. Educação & Realidade, 44. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-623684611
Pulla, V. (2014). Grounded theory approach in social research. Space and Culture, India, 2(3), 14–23. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v2i3.93
Raduescu, C., & Vessey, I. (2011). Analysis of current grounded theory method practices. Business Information Systems Working Paper Series, University of Sydney. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from http://hdl.handle.net/2123/7225
Ramalho, R., Adams, P., Huggard, P., & Hoare, K. (2015). Literature review and constructivist grounded theory methodology. Forum: Qualitative social research, 16(3), 1–13. Retrieved August 15, 2023, from https://hdl.handle.net/2292/58997
Rennie, D. L., Phillips, J. R., & Quartaro, G. K. (1988). Grounded theory: A promising approach to conceptualization in psychology?. Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne, 29(2), 139–150. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079765
Saldaña, J. (2009). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage.
Strati, A. (2009). Introduzione all’edizione italiana: La scoperta della grounded theory. In B. Glaser, A. Strauss (Eds.), La scoperta della Grounded Theory: Strategie per la ricerca qualitativa (pp. 8–24). Roma: Armando.
Sultana, R. G. (1991). Research in teaching and teacher education: Qualitative methods and grounded theory methodology. South Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 19(1), 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/0311213910190107
Tarozzi, M. (2008). Che cos’è la Grounded Theory. Roma: Carocci.
Thistoll, T., Hooper, V., & Pauleen, D. J. (2016). Acquiring and developing theoretical sensitivity through undertaking a grounded preliminary literature review. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, 50(2), 619–636. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-015-0167-3
Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE Open Medicine, 7, 205031211882292. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312118822927
Wolfswinkel, J. F., Furtmueller, E., & Wilderom, C. P. (2013). Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature. European journal of information systems, 22(1), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2011.51
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Alessandra Natalini
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Formazione & insegnamento is distributed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).