The role of self-efficacy on teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with disabilities: a comparison between general and support teachers
Keywords:Teachers’ attitudes, Teachers’ self-efficacy, Inclusive education, Support teachers, General teachers
In educational contexts, teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion are considered crucial elements for the implementation of effective inclusive practices. Teachers’ self-efficacy is considered one of the most relevant factors underlying their intention to implement different teaching strategies for including all students, in particular students with disabilities and special educational needs. Although the literature indicates that teachers have positive attitudes towards inclusion, studies focusing on such attitudes show inconsistent finding on the role and correlation between the different factors that determine them. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ attitude by taking into account, as determining factors, teachers’ role (curricular or support teacher) and self-efficacy, with further analysis on the relationship between the two factors. Results show significant differences on the role of these two factors in determining teachers’ attitudes.
Ainscow, M. (2020). Promoting inclusion and equity in education: lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/20020317.2020.1729587
Aiello, P., Di Gennaro, D. C., Girelli, L., & Olley, J. G. (2018). Inclusione e atteggiamenti dei docenti verso gli studenti con disturbo dello spettro autistico: suggestioni da uno studio pilota. Formazione & insegnamento, 16(1), 175–188. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/siref/article/view/2739
Aiello, P., & Sharma, U. (2018). Improving intentions to teach in inclusive classrooms: the impact of teacher education courses on future Learning Support Teachers. Form@re - Open Journal Per La Formazione in Rete, 18(1), 207–219. https://doi.org/10.13128/formare-22605
Aiello, P., Sharma, U., Dimitrov, D. M., Di Gennaro, D. C., Pace, E. M., Zollo, I., & Sibilio, M. (2016). Indagine sulle percezioni del livello di efficacia dei docenti e sui loro atteggiamenti nei confronti dell’inclusione. L’integrazione scolastica e sociale, 15(1), 64–87. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://rivistedigitali.erickson.it/integrazione-scolastica-sociale/it/visualizza/pdf/1233
Aiello, P., Pace, E. M., Dimitrov, D. M., & Sibilio, M. (2017). A study on the perceptions and efficacy towards inclusive practices of teacher trainees. Italian Journal of Educational Research, 19, 13–28. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/sird/article/view/2542
Aiello, P., Pace, E. M., & Sibilio, M. (2021). A simplex approach in Italian teacher education programmes to promote inclusive practices. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2021.1882056
Aiello, P., Sharma, U., Di Gennaro, D., Dimitrov, D., Pace, E. M., Zollo, I., & Sibilio, M. (2019). A study on Italian teachers’ sentiments, attitudes and concerns towards inclusive education. Formazione, lavoro, persona, 7(20), 10–24.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, Personality and Behaviour. Berkshire: Open University Press
Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Educational psychology, 20(2), 191–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/713663717
Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(2), 129–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250210129056
Avramidis, E., & Toulia, A. (2020). Attitudes and inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular schools. In Oxford research encyclopedia of education. Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1237
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191–215. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biasi, V., Domenici, G., Patrizi, N., & Capobianco, R. (2014). Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (Scala sull’auto-efficacia del Docente–SAED): adattamento e validazione in Italia. ECPS Journal, 10, 485–509. https://doi.org/10.7358/ecps-2014-010-bias
Bocci, F. (2018). Costruire il profilo dell’insegnante inclusivo: la formazione in servizio mediata da esperienze di ricerca-azione con l’Index for Inclusion. In S. Ulivieri (Ed.), Le emergenze educative della società contemporanea. Progetti e proposte per il cambiamento (pp. 1069–1081). Lecce: Pensa Multimedia.
Bocci, F., Guerini, I., Travaglini, A. (2021). Le competenze dell’insegnante inclusivo. Riflessioni sulla formazione iniziale tra aspettative e conferme. Form@re, 21(1), 8–23. https://doi.org/10.13128/form-10463
Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2011). Index for Inclusion – Developing Learning and Participation in Schools (3rd ed). Bristol, UK: CSIE.
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2012). Profile of Inclusive Teachers. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/te4i-profile-of-inclusive-teachers_Profile-of-Inclusive-Teachers-IT.pdf
European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education (2021). Aligning Competence Frameworks for Teacher Professional Learning for Inclusion: Conceptual Working Paper. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2021. Teachers in Europe: Careers, Development and Well-being. Eurydice report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Council (2020). Council conclusions on European teachers and trainers for the future (2020/C 193/04). Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52020XG0609(02)
Ewing, D. L., Monsen, J. J., & Kielblock, S. (2018). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: a critical review of published questionnaires. Educational Psychology in Practice, 34(2), 150–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2017.1417822
Fiorucci, A. (2014). Gli atteggiamenti degli insegnanti verso l’inclusione e la disabilità: uno sguardo internazionale. Italian Journal of Special Education for Inclusion, 2(1), 53–66. Retrived August 30, 2022, from https://ojs.pensamultimedia.it/index.php/sipes/article/view/355
Fiorucci, A. (2019). Inclusione, disabilità e formazione docenti. Uno studio sulla rilevazione degli atteggiamenti e dei fattori associati in un gruppo di futuri insegnanti. La scala OFAID. Italian Journal of Special Education for Inclusion, 7(2), 271–293. https://doi.org/10.7346/sipes-02-2019-21
Fiorucci, A., & Pinnelli, S. (2020). Supporto alla disabilità e promozione dell’inclusione: una ricerca sugli atteggiamenti e sulle preoccupazioni di un gruppo di futuri docenti. L’integrazione scolastica e sociale, 19(1), 68–80. https://doi.org/10.14605/ISS1912009
Forlin, C., Earle, C., Loreman, T. & Sharma, U. (2011). The sentiments, attitudes, and concerns about inclusive education revised (SACIE-R) scale for measuring pre-service teachers’ perceptions about inclusion. Exceptionality Education International, 21(3), 50–65. https://doi.org/10.5206/eei.v21i3.7682
Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of educational psychology, 76(4), 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1249
Graham, L.J., Medhurst, M., Malaquias, C., Tancredi, H., Bruin, C., Gillett-Swan, J., Poed, S., Spandagou, I., Carrington, S. & Cologon, K. (2020). Beyond Salamanca: a citation analysis of the CRPD/GC4 relative to the Salamanca Statement in inclusive and special education research. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1–23.
Hecht, P., Aiello, P., Pace, E. M., & Sibilio, M. (2017). Attitudes and teacher efficacy among Italian and Austrian teachers: A comparative study. Formazione & Insegnamento, 15(1), 269–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1831627
Hernandez, D. A., Hueck, S., & Charley, C. (2016). General Education and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 79, 93. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1129749
Ianes, D., Demo, H. & Zambotti, F. (2010). Gli insegnanti e l’integrazione: Atteggiamenti, opinioni e pratiche. Trento: Erickson.
ISTAT (2020), L’inclusione scolastica degli alunni con disabilita. Anno scolastico 2019-2020. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://www.istat.it/it/files/2020/12/Report-alunni-con-disabilit%C3%A0.pdf
Loreman, T., Forlin, C., & Sharma, U. (2007). An international comparison of pre-service teacher attitudes towards inclusive education. Disability Studies Quarterly, 27(4). Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://dsq-sds.org/article/view/53/53
Murdaca, A. M., Oliva, P., & Costa, S. (2018). Evaluating the perception of disability and the inclusive education of teachers: the Italian validation of the Sacie-R (Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusive Education–Revised Scale). European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(1), 148–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2016.1267944
MIUR (2021). Atto di indirizzo politico istituzionale concernente l’individuazione delle priorità politiche del Ministero dell’istruzione per l’anno 2022 (Decreto Ministeriale 15 settembre 2021, n. 281). Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://www.miur.gov.it/web/guest/-/decreto-ministeriale-n-281-del-15-settembre-2021
Navarro, D. J. & Foxcroft, D. R. (2019). Learning statistics with Jamovi: a tutorial for psychology students and other beginners. Self-published. https://doi.org/10.24384/hgc3-7p15
Park, M. H., Dimitrov, D. M., Das, A., & Gichuru, M. (2016). The teacher efficacy for inclusive practices (TEIP) scale: Dimensionality and factor structure. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 16(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12047
Sharma, U. (2012). Changing pre-service teachers’ beliefs to teach in inclusive classrooms in Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(10), 53-66. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1851&context=ajte
Sharma, U., Aiello, P., Pace, E. M., Round, P., & Subban, P. (2018). In-service teachers’ attitudes, concerns, efficacy and intentions to teach in inclusive classrooms: An international comparison of Australian and Italian teachers. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(3), 437–446. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2017.1361139
Sharma, U., & George, S. (2016). Understanding Teacher Self-Efficacy to Teach in Inclusive Classrooms. In S. Garvis, D. Pendergast (Eds.), Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy (p. 37). Rotterdam: SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-521-0_3
Sharma, U., Loreman, T., & Forlin, C. (2012). Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12(1), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2011.01200.x
Sharma, U., & Sokal, L. (2016). Can teachers’ self-reported efficacy, concerns, and attitudes toward inclusion scores predict their actual inclusive classroom practices?. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 40(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1017/jse.2015.14
Saloviita, T. (2020). Attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(2), 270–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1541819
Savolainen, H., Malinen, O. P., & Schwab, S. (2022). Teacher efficacy predicts teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion–a longitudinal cross-lagged analysis. International journal of inclusive education, 26(9), 958–972. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1752826
Segall, M. J., & Campbell, J. M. (2012). Factors relating to educational professionals’ classroom practices for the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1156–1167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.02.007
Tschannen-Moran M., & Hoy A.W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and teacher education, 17(7), 783–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1
UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. In Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, España (Ed.), World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality, Salamanca, Spain, 1994 (ED.94/WS/18). Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000098427
UNESCO (2020). Global Education Monitoring Report 2020: Inclusion and education: All means all. Paris: UNESCO.
United Nations (2021). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2021. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. Retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2021/
Van Mieghem, A., Verschueren, K., Petry, K., & Struyf, E. (2020). An analysis of research on inclusive education: A systematic search and meta review. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24(6), 675e689.
Van Steen, T., & Wilson, C. (2020). Individual and cultural factors in teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion: A meta-analysis. Teaching and teacher Education, 95, 103127. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1482012
Yada, A., Leskinen, M., Savolainen, H., & Schwab, S. (2022). Meta-analysis of the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes toward inclusive education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 109, 103521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2021.103521
Yada, A., & Savolainen, H. (2017). Japanese in-service teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive education and self-efficacy for inclusive practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 64, 222–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.02.005
Yada, A., & Savolainen, H. (2019). Japanese and Finnish Teachers’ Perceptions and Self-Efficacy in Inclusive Education. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 19(1), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12478
Zanfroni, E., Maggiolini, S., & d’Alonzo, L. (2021). Quando tutto è ricominciato: il ritorno a scuola degli alunni più fragili. Esiti della ricerca FocuScuola Inclusione 20.20. Form@ re, 21(3), 25–40.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Germani, Clara Leone
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Formazione & insegnamento is distributed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
For further details, please refer to our Repository & Archiving Policy, as well as our Copyright & Licensing Terms.