What do teachers say? A quantitative-qualitative analysis of their reactions to a training experience





Teacher education, Teaching innovation, Quantitative-qualitative analysis, Teacher continuous professional development


The paper presents the evaluation research that evaluated a training experience on teaching innovation involving middle and high school teachers. The paper focuses on the ongoing evaluation of meetings to share a learning-teaching cycle developed on a cognitive challenge addressed to students. The paper considers the results of quantitative and qualitative analyses that evaluated teachers’ reactions to meetings process and content, as well as in general and overall terms. The results conclude that the teachers’ reactions were very positive. The results also corroborate the training choices made, in line with the literature on key elements of effective teacher continuous professional development. Although the overall appraisal was positive, teachers nevertheless highlighted some critical aspects intrinsic and extrinsic to the training experience. The critical issues highlighted allow the definition of aspects to be improved in the future.


Anderson, G., & Arsenault, N. (1998). Fundamentals of Educational Research (2nd ed.). London, UK: RoutledgeFalmer.

Anolli, L., & Mantovani, F. (2011). Come funziona la nostra mente. Bologna, IT: Il Mulino.

Aronson, E. (2002). Building empathy, compassion, and achievement in the jigsaw classroom. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement. Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 209–225). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012064455-1/50013-0

Aronson, E. (2006). L’animale sociale. Milano, IT: Apogeo.

Aronson, E. (2022). Jigsaw in 10 easy steps. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from jigsaw.org/#steps

Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D., & Hanessian, H. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York, NY, USA: Holt Rinehart and Wilson.

Blank, R. K., & De Las Alas, N. (2009). The Effects of Teacher Professional Development on Gains in Student Achievement: How Meta Analysis Provides Scientific Evidence Useful to Education Leaders. Washington, DC, USA: Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED544700

Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Brewer, E. W. (2011). Evaluation models for evaluating educational programmes. In V. C. X. Wang (Ed.), Assessing and evaluating adult learning in career and technical education (pp. 106–126). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global.

Bruner, J. S. (2005a). L’atto della scoperta. In J. S. Bruner (Ed.), Il conoscere. Saggi per la mano sinistra (pp. 107–124). Roma, IT: Armando Editore.

Bruner, J. S. (2005b). Il conoscere. Saggi per la mano sinistra. Roma, IT: Armando Editore.

Carless, D. (2007). Learning-oriented assessment: Conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703290601081332

Castoldi, M. (2016). Valutare e certificare le competenze. Roma, IT: Carocci editore.

Cattani, A. (2011). Argomentare le proprie ragioni organizzare. Condurre e valutare un dibattito. Casoria, IT: Loffredo editore, University press.

Cecchinato, G., & Papa, R. (2016). Flipped classroom: Un nuovo modo di insegnare e apprendere. Torino, IT: UTET Università.

Cecchinato, G., Papa, R., & Foschi, L. C. (2019). Bringing game elements to the classroom: The role of challenge and technology. Italian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(2), 158-173. https://doi.org/10.17471/2499-4324/1078

Chiorri, C. (2014). Fondamenti di psicometria. Milano, IT: McGraw-Hill Education.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, MI, USA: Erlbaum.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Cordingley, P., Higgins, S., Greany, T., Buckler, N., Coles-Jordan, D., Crisp, B., Saunders, L., & Coe, R. (2015). Developing great teaching: lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development. Project Report. London, UK: Development Trust.

D’Agostini, F. (2010). Verità avvelenata. Buoni e cattivi argomenti nel dibattito pubblico. Torino, IT: Bollati Boringhieri.

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective Teacher Professional Development. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Learning Policy Institute.

Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX, USA: National Staff Development Council.

De Conti, M. (2013). Dibattere a scuola: scegliere il proprio percorso educativo. Studi sulla formazione, 16(1), 111-120. https://doi.org/10.13128/Studi_Formaz-13488

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x08331140

Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015). Best practices in teachers’ professional development in the United States. Psychology, Society and Education, 7(3), 252–263. https://doi.org/10.25115/psye.v7i3.515

Desimone, L., Porter, A. C., Birman, B. F., Garet, M. S., & Yoon, K. S. (2002). How do district management and implementation strategies relate to the quality of the professional development that districts provide to teachers?. Teachers college record, 104(7), 1265–1312. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146810210400703

Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education. New York, NY, USA: Simon & Schuster.

Dunst, C. J., Bruder, M. B., & Hamby, D. W. (2015). Metasynthesis of in-service professional development research: Features associated with positive educator and student outcomes. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(12), 1731–1744. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2306

Festinger, L. (1962). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University Press.

Foschi, L. C. (2021). Innovative aspects and evaluation methods in a teachers’ continuous professional development training experience. Italian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(1), 46–64. https://doi.org/10.17471/2499-4324/1165

Foschi, L. C. (2022). Pianificare, implementare e valutare lo sviluppo professionale continuo dei docenti: risultati di una ricerca valutativa su un’esperienza di formazione [Doctoral dissertation]. Padova, IT: Università degli Studi di Padova.

Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J. (2012). Effect size estimates: current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 141(1), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024338

Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American educational research journal, 38(4), 915–945. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004915

Gee, J. P. (2013). Come un videogioco: insegnare e apprendere nella scuola digitale. Milano, IT: Raffaello Cortina.

Gibbons, J. D. (1993). Nonparametric statistics: An introduction. Newbury Park, CA, USA: Sage.

Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Corwin Press.

Guskey, T.R. (2002). Does it make a difference? Evaluating professional development. Educational Leadership, 59(6), 45–51. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/does-it-make-a-difference-evaluating-professional-development

Guskey, T. R., Roy, P., & von Frank, V. (2014). Reach the highest standard in professional learning: Data. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Corwin Press.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1983) Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London, UK: Routledge.

Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA, USA: Mit Press.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (2015). Apprendimento cooperativo in classe: Migliorare il clima emotivo e il rendimento. Trento, IT: Erickson.

Jonassen, D. H. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.

Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA, USA: Resources for Teachers, Inc.

Kanji, K. G. (2006). 100 Statistical Test. London, UK: Sage.

King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1), 30-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.1993.9926781

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Burlington, NC, USA: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429299612

LaDonna, K. A., Taylor, T., & Lingard, L. (2018). Why open-ended survey questions are unlikely to support rigorous qualitative insights. Academic Medicine, 93(3), 347–349. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000002088

Mayer, R. E. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59(1), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.59.1.14

Morrison, C. D. (2014). From ‘Sage on the Stage’ to ‘Guide on the side’: A good start. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8(1), Art. 4, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2014.080104

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.

Mazur, E. (2013). Peer Instruction: Pearson New International Edition: A User’s Manual. New York, NY, USA: Pearson Higher Education & Professional Group.

Miles, M., & Huberman, M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA, USA: Sage.

Nicol, D., & MacFarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199–218. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572090

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual. New York, NY, USA: McGraw Hill Open University Press.

Piaget, J. (1974). La prise de conscience. Paris, FR: PUF.

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x

Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18(2), 119-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00117714

Sawilowsky, S. S. (2007). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics (Vol. 1) (pp. 1051-1053). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage.

Scher, L., & O’Reilly, F. (2009). Professional development for K-12 math and science teachers: What do we really know?. Journal of research on educational effectiveness, 2(3), 209-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345740802641527

Slavin, R. E. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.

Smyth, H. (2013). What Does Research Say About the Effectiveness of Professional Learning and Development for Culturally Responsive Teaching at Primary School Level?. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 10(1), 169–189.

Snider, A. C. & Schnurer, M. (2006). Many Sides: Debate Across the Curriculum. New York, NY, USA: IDEA.

Swennen, A., Lunenberg, M., & Korthagen, F. (2008). Preach what you teach! Teacher educators and congruent teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 14, 531–542. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600802571387

Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., & Fung, I. (2007). Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration. Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Education.

Topping, K. (1998). Peer assessment between students in colleges and universities. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 249–276. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543068003249

van Veen, K., Zwart, R., & Meirink, J. (2012). What makes teacher professional development effective? A literature review. In M. Kooy, & K. van Veen (Eds.), Teacher learning that matters (pp. 23–41). New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203805879

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Book title: Subtitle (Translator Initial(s). Surname, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year).

Vygotskij, L. S. (1990). Pensiero e linguaggio (L. Mecacci, Trans.). Roma-Bari, IT: Laterza. [Original work: Выго́тский Л. С. (1934). Мышление и речь. Moscow, Leningrad: Государственное Социально-Экономическое Издательство]

Vygotskij L. S. (1987). Il processo cognitivo (C. Ranchetti, Trans.). Torino: Bollati Boringhieri. [Original unpublished work: ca. 1930–1934]

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed). Alexandria, VA, USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007 - No. 033). Washington, DC, USA: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest.



How to Cite

Foschi, L. C. (2022). What do teachers say? A quantitative-qualitative analysis of their reactions to a training experience. Formazione & Insegnamento, 20(3), 512–530. https://doi.org/10.7346/-fei-XX-03-22_35