Reconceptualising feedback as an internal not an external process


  • David Nicol Pensa MultiMedia Editore


Students are producing internal feedback all the time as they monitor, evaluate and regulate their own learning. When they receive external feedback information from a teacher it has to be turned into internal feedback if it is to have any impact on learning. Recent research on peer review shows that students can generate productive internal feedback by themselves without any teacher input. Specifically, as they produce written feedback on the work of peers, they simultaneously reflect on and generate internal feedback on their own work. Strengthening internal feedback develops the students’ capacity to think for themselves and to become independent self-regulating learners. This article therefore makes the case for internal feedback, illustrates its operation in peer review and points to its promise as a guiding concept for future research and for improvements in practice.




How to Cite

Nicol, D. (2019). Reconceptualising feedback as an internal not an external process. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 71–84. Retrieved from