ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Educational Research (IJEduR)</strong>, the official organ of the Italian Society of Educational Research (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SIRD</a>), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is dedicated to educational and didactic research methodologies and to evaluative research in education.</p> <p>The research areas include: curriculum development, teacher training, school, university and vocational education, teaching organization and design, educational technologies and e-learning, disciplinary teaching, teaching 'inclusive education, methodologies for continuous training, docimology, assessment and certification of skills, evaluation of training processes, assessment and quality of training systems.</p> <p>The papers are published in two issues per year in June and December.</p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 2038-9736 <p>The authors who publish in this magazine accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The authors retain the rights to their work and give the magazine the right to first publish the work, simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution which allows others to share the work indicating the intellectual authorship and the first publication in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors may adhere to other non-exclusive license agreements for the distribution of the version of the published work (eg deposit it in an institutional archive or publish it in a monograph), provided that the first publication took place in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors can disseminate their work online (eg in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and increase citations of the published work.</li> </ol> Unpacking teacher decision-making: Connecting complex elements <p>Teaching is a complex endeavor requiring countless decisions to be made, sometimes within the blink of an eye. The recent outbreak of emergency remote teaching due to the pandemic emphasized the importance of teachers' expert knowledge in supporting deep learning online. Even though various attempts have been made in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of how knowledge, skills, epistemology, and values affect teacher reasoning and actions remains elusive. While acknowledging the role of single factors, this paper advocates a systemic view of teacher decision-making in technology rich contexts. An Epistemic Frame is suggested as a way of systemically integrate epistemology, skills, values, and knowledge peculiar to the teacher community. Introducing Quantitative Ethnography and Epistemic Network Analysis, this paper argues that the connections among elements of teachers' epistemic frames are pivotal, and thus calls for research methodologies that facilitate the explicit modelling of such connections. To this end, two studies will be introduced as examples.</p> Ottavia Trevisan Michael Phillips Marina De Rossi Copyright (c) 2021 Ottavia Trevisan, Michael Phillips, Marina De Rossi 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 013 026 10.7346/sird-022021-p13 Ensuring equitable opportunities for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Italy and Austria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis of educational policy documents <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The coronavirus pandemic has revealed the limitations of current social structures, with school closures exposing marginalized population groups to further threats and disadvantages. During the first wave of the pandemic, schools needed to pay special attention to the most vulnerable and marginalized pupils to counteract growing social and educational inequity. Against the background of the differing educational governance and emergency management in the neighbouring countries of Italy and Austria during the first wave of the pandemic, this paper investigates how policy initiatives and regulations helped to tackle inequities in schools between February and August 2020. The aim of this analysis is to understand the differences between the educational policy measures adopted by Italy and Austria in order to be better prepared for future crises and to work toward more equitable education systems. Educational policy documents were subjected to qualitative content analysis and discussed using the lens of critical pedagogy. The results illustrate the extent to which educational policy documents supported students from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and culturally and linguistically diverse learners during the first wave of the pandemic. The data show the different dynamics of systems’ responses to the pandemic: while in Italy there was a stronger focus on digitalization as a means of ensuring equity of educational opportunities, for example, Austria put more emphasis on supporting children with diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.</p> </div> </div> </div> Barbara Gross Denis Francesconi Evi Agostini Copyright (c) 2021 Barbara Gross, Denis Fancesconi, Evi Agostini 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 027 039 10.7346/sird-022021-p27 Video analysis as a learning tool to promote the quality of teaching: from school teachers’ education to university teachers' professional development <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The use of video as a learning tool in initial and continuing teacher education has increasingly spread over the past decades and has changed over time in line with technological advancements and according to different purposes, from being a means to illustrate good teaching practices to a medium for promoting critical reflection on action and helping teachers develop their “professional vision”. Based on these premises, the contribution presents theoretical and empirical perspectives on the use of video for teacher education in order to outline the conceptual framework underlying a research project aimed at investigating the potential of video analysis in contexts of professional development of university teachers. The first section of the paper therefore offers an overview of existing research on video-based teacher education, with a focus on developments in the approaches to the use of video for teacher learning purposes and on empirical evidence on effectiveness and impact of video-based training to promote teacher change processes. Building on this theoretical framework, the second part of the contribution outlines some directions for the use of video for the professional development of university teachers and presents the objectives and design of the Video Analysis for quality teaching in Higher Education (VAHE) project, a research path in progress aimed at developing and testing a system of methodologies, tools and procedures for video analysis to foster the improvement of teaching skills of university teachers.</p> </div> </div> </div> Andrea Ciani Alessandra Rosa Rossella Santagata Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Ciani, Alessandra Rosa, Rossella Santagata 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 040 051 10.7346/sird-022021-p40 Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in Italy: an analysis of the results of the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The role of teachers is recognised as crucial to the quality of education and student learning. Ensuring and improving the quality of their professionalism is therefore essential. Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is critical to achieving this goal. This paper explores the CPD in Italy by analysing the results of the latest Teaching And Learning International Survey (TALIS) conducted by the OECD in 2018. After highlight- ing the relevance that CPD assumes in the Italian context, the paper examines the survey results and compares them with European and OECD countries. The contribution analyses participation rates, types of activities, content, and areas for which teachers express the greatest need for development. The paper also explores the impact of CPD, characteristics of the most effective activities, factors perceived as barriers to participation, and support measures received by teachers. Finally, it discusses the findings that emerged and outlines possible perspectives that can guide and improve policies related to CPD and the choices of those who design and implement it.</p> </div> </div> </div> Laura Carlotta Foschi Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Carlotta Foschi 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 052 064 10.7346/sird-022021-p52 Training Perspective Questionnaire (TPQ): the development process of a self-assessment tool of trainers’ and consultants’ perspectives <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The paper is part of a wider mixed-methods research project aimed at setting up a questionnaire useful for investigating organizational trainers’ and consultants’ training perspectives. After an introductory description of the first qualitative phase, the paper focuses on the subsequent quantitative phase, which involved the administration of a Training Perspective Questionnaire (TPQ). The tool consists of 75 items elaborated on the basis of the theoretical frameworks and the results of the semi-structured interviews conducted during the first part of the research. The questionnaire was administrated with the collaboration of Italian training agencies and professional associations and reached 83 respondents. First findings are related to the qualitative structure of the questionnaire. Furthermore, first reflections on the ongoing ad- ministration of the tool are presented.</p> </div> </div> </div> Daniela Frison Concetta Tino Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Frison, Concetta Tino 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 065 076 10.7346/sird-022021-p65 Evaluation as an improvement agent. The monitoring of the Scuolinsieme Project <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>What is the impact that funded projects can have on school organization and student outcomes? How can it be monitored? Does monitoring detect impacts or is it itself a source of impact? It is possible to provide teachers with methodologies and tools capable of increasing their self-assessment possibilities? The article intends to provide some answers to these questions, describing - in a nutshell - the monitoring of the Scuolinsieme project, a set of interventions financed by the Fondazione per la Scuola della Compagnia di San Paolo, applied in 34 lower secondary schools from 2017 to 2020. Starting from a brief description of the interventions and of the system of indicators used, a monitoring strategy is presented. This strategy not only aims to detect the effects of the interventions themselves but intends to impact them, in concert with the planning and training actions. The first results highlight a positive effect of the intervention on the practices implemented by teachers and in their awareness of being the main agents of school improve- ment. This is possible if the teachers are appropriately supported by external experts who help to bring out the potential present in the school.</p> </div> </div> </div> Giorgio Chiosso Roberto Trinchero Federico Zamengo Davide Della Rina Giulia Piantadosi Alessio Tomassone Vittoria Valvassori Copyright (c) 2021 Giorgio Chiosso, Roberto Trinchero, Federico Zamengo, Davide Della Rina, Giulia Piantadosi, Alessio Tomassone, Vittoria Valvassori 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 077 088 10.7346/sird-022021-p77 Distance learning and teaching strategies: Experiences and perceptions of Emilia-Romagna teachers <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Starting from the data of the national research conducted by SIRD (Batini et al., 2020; Lucisano, 2020) in this paper we will present the results that emerged from the regional sample of Emilia-Romagna regarding the qualitative part of the questionnaire. In particular, besides presenting the categories and subcategories with higher and lower frequency, the paper will try to highlight those aspects that refer to the teaching strategies adopted by teachers during distance learning. The interest in this issue stems from the fact that the first analyses of data (Ciani &amp; Ricci, 2021; Lucisano, De Luca &amp; Zanazzi, 2021) highlight that teachers have mainly adopted transmissive (rather than participatory) teaching strategies and that this aspect may have affected not only student participation and involvement but also the effectiveness of teaching. We believe that by crossreferencing the different re-sponses of the teachers, it is possible to enrich what has already emerged from the research and add educational reflections to the complex educational process that has charac-terized the months of distance learning.</p> </div> </div> </div> Chiara Dalledonne Vandini Lucia Scipione Copyright (c) 2021 Chiara Dalledonne Vandini, Lucia Scipione 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 089 101 10.7346/sird-022021-p89 The school after the emergency: perspectives and reflections on didactics starting from the national SIRD survey <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Following the first wave of the pandemic, which forced schools of all levels to implement Distance Learning, with the resumption of the new school year (2020/2021) we moved to the now well-known “Integrated Digital Didactics” (DDI). With this in mind, it is essential that educational research be oriented to identify with scientific methodology the aspects that have characterized Distance Learning in order to help define innovative teaching strategies and policies to be implemented during and after the emergency period. With these intentions, the Italian Society of Educational Research (SIRD) conducted a national study entitled “A comparison of distance learning methods adopted in Italian schools during the COVID-19 emergency period”. The study involved the completion of a questionnaire constructed upon ten thematic areas, intended for teachers throughout the country and to which more than 16,000 responded. The educational challenges do not end with the immediate crisis. With this paper, starting from a cross-sectional analysis of quantitative and qualitative data conducted on the Lazio unit of analysis, we aim to identify those aspects that could, potentially, become elements of quality in our school system in the future.</p> </div> </div> </div> Pietro Lucisano Irene Stanzione Arianna L. Morini Copyright (c) 2021 Pietro Lucisano, Irene Stanzione, Arianna L. Morini 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 102 114 10.7346/sird-022021-p102 Classroom relationships in DADA model school (Didactics for Learning Environments):the sociometric: test and teachers point of view <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper presents the sociometric analysis of relationships between students (N = 130) of six classes in a lower secondary school in Rome, which adopts the DADA model (Didattiche per Ambienti Di Apprendimento – Didactics for Learning Environments). The knowledge of relationships between students allows teachers to effectively manage the class and with the sociometric test it is possible to highlight the relational structure of the class, identifying students who are in more marginal situations (rejected or isolated). The aim of the survey is to verify teachers point of view on class relationships and on DADA model, to solicit a reflection on the important school role as a place of socialization and peers interaction and on the possible teaching methods provided by DADA model to promote inclusion. The sociometric analysis has brought to light how some students are rejected and how some subgroups are isolated from the rest of the class. The administration of a teachers (N = 11) questionnaire showed that not all teachers recognize the existing relationships between students, but they recognize the importance of a good classroom climate for learning and socialization and see in the DADA an important innovation to promote inclusion. Teachers demonstrate a great propensity for inclusion, but a new teacher professionalism is needed to guide students in constructive interpersonal relationships to ensure student well-being as a key element for the restart after the crisis due to Covid-19, which has strongly changed the social relations between students.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sara Germani Copyright (c) 2021 Sara Germani 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 115 130 10.7346/sird-022021-p115 Project-based learning in computer science laboratory for education. A longitudinal study <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Teaching computer science in a humanities degree course is not a simple action, not because of the complexity of the subject itself, but because of the natural reluctance of students towards an apparently difficult discipline and in any case different from the others in their study plan. This paper describes an experience conducted at the University of Salerno with the aim of stimulating the students of the degree course in “Educational Sciences” to participate in the activities of the “Computer science laboratory for education” organized according to a project-based approach which leaves participants a wider margin of autonomy and which gives more space to their creativity. The results obtained are particularly encouraging and offer suggestions on methodologies to be used to increase involvement of students and stimulate them to develop their computational thinking.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sergio Miranda Copyright (c) 2021 Sergio Miranda 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 131 139 10.7346/sird-022021-p131 Video as an anticipatory tool to deepen and to generate questions. A case study in higher education <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Videos are today one of the most used tools in higher education, especially because of their practicality and efficacy: videos are easy to be filmed or to be found on the web and they can be used in many didactic or formative actions. Moreover, videos are able to enhance learning because they are more efficient than a static picture or frame. However, literature doesn’t show any evidence on the questions students develop after watching the video. Based on the previous considerations, we present a case study about a didactic event that has been redesigned, including some anticipatory videos as an innovative element. The overall aim of this study is to verify the video efficacy in terms of satisfaction and perceived impact on learning processes, interpreted through to the theoretical reference proposed by Schwartz and Hartman. The second aim is to understand how the anticipatory video helps students to deepen topics and to formulate specific and relevant questions. Data analysis shows that students perceive videos as useful tools to improve their engagement and motivation; to better understand some theoretical elements; and to focus on some details that would have been left out. The codification procedure shows that student’s questions are specific and coherent to the topic and that the students asked not only minimal explanations or clarifications but also some in-depth analysis of the experience. Considering that, we can say that videos could enhance preliminary and precise knowledge of the debated topic.</p> </div> </div> </div> Simona Ferrari Ilaria Terrenghi Copyright (c) 2021 Technical Editorial Staff 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 140 159 10.7346/sird-022021-p140 Teachers and students’ answers to open-ended questions about distance learning: analysis of self-evaluation questionnaires in a comprehensive school in Rome <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper presents the results of the open-ended questions of the monitoring of distance learning carried out in a comprehensive Roman school during pandemic time. The study involved the administration of three instruments: a teacher questionnaire and 2 questionnaires for students and parents. The results of the open-ended questions (distance learning strengths and weaknesses, observations) relating to teachers (138) and students (457) will be discussed in this paper. The results of close-ended questions relating to teachers, pupils and families have been presented in a previous study (Castellana &amp; Rossi, 2021). According to the teachers, the main difficulties of the students during the period of distance learning were the lack and the inadequacy of devices and connections. The main strength was the improvement of the school curricula. On the other hand, a considerable weakness was the lack of contact with and between the pupils. According to the students, the strengths of distance learning were being able to guarantee the continuity of the school activity, both in relation to teaching and human relationships, but also an improvement of the learning environment by the use of more engaging teaching methods, a greater autonomy and flexibility in the organization of work, lessons and materials and the development of considerable IT skills.</p> <p>A second set of responses highlighted the difficulties which arose from the reorganisation of the school system. Among the prospects of improvement there is an intensification of the relations between teachers and pupils and the increase and regularity of video recordings.</p> </div> </div> </div> Giusi Castellana Luca Rossi Copyright (c) 2021 Giusi Catellana, Luca Rossi 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 160 182 10.7346/sird-022021-p160 Indice <p>Indice</p> Technical Editorial Staff Copyright (c) 2021 Technical Editorial Staff 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 001 006 Editorial Pietro Lucisano Copyright (c) 2021 Pietro Lucisano 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 27 007 012