ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Educational Research (IJEduR)</strong>, the official organ of the Italian Society of Educational Research (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SIRD</a>), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is dedicated to educational and didactic research methodologies and to evaluative research in education.</p> <p>The research areas include: curriculum development, teacher training, school, university and vocational education, teaching organization and design, educational technologies and e-learning, disciplinary teaching, teaching 'inclusive education, methodologies for continuous training, docimology, assessment and certification of skills, evaluation of training processes, assessment and quality of training systems.</p> <p>The papers are published in two issues per year in June and December.</p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 2038-9736 <p>The authors who publish in this magazine accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The authors retain the rights to their work and give the magazine the right to first publish the work, simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution which allows others to share the work indicating the intellectual authorship and the first publication in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors may adhere to other non-exclusive license agreements for the distribution of the version of the published work (eg deposit it in an institutional archive or publish it in a monograph), provided that the first publication took place in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors can disseminate their work online (eg in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and increase citations of the published work.</li> </ol> Indice <p>Indice</p> Technical Staff Copyright (c) 2020 Technical Staff 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 1 6 Interventions for the promotion of motor activities in primary school. Assessment of motor performance in relation to perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment <p>Overweight and obesity in childhood are factors influencing the motor development of children. This study aims to present the results of a cross-sectional study aimed at assessing and comparing motor performance, perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment in relation to body mass index (BMI) in a sample of primary school children. The surveys were carried out as part of the SBAM regional project, aimed at the third classes of primary schools in Apulia region to promote correct lifestyles. The sample of 1850 pupils (F: 933; M: 917) was divided into groups according to gender differences and BMI (normal weight vs overweight vs obese). Motor performance was assessed with four engine tests (SLJ; 6 MWT; 10x4; MBT); perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment with two self reports: PSP_C and PACES. In addition to the descriptive statistics (M ± SD), the analysis of variance and correlation was performed to highlight the differences between the groups. The data showed a strong relationship between BMI and motor performance, perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment in both sexes. Children with high BMI showed lower motor performance and perceived self-efficacy scores and enjoyment than the normal weight group (p &lt;.05). The results of the present study suggest that higher BMI values not only negatively affect motor performance, and therefore represent an indicator of low motor development, but are also associated with reduced levels of perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment</p> Dario Colella Sergio Bellantonio Cristina D'Arando Domenico Monacis Copyright (c) 2020 Dario Colella, Sergio Bellantonio, Cristina D'Arando, Domenico Monacis 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 49 62 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P49 Perception of Soft Skills. Adaptation and Try-out of the 3SQ - Soft Skill Self-evaluation Questionnaire for Lower Secondary School Students <p>This paper presents the tryout of the self-perception questionnaire of soft skills, administered to third year students of lower secondary school, in eight Comprehensive Institutes in Rome. The tool based on which the questionnaire was made for thirteen-year-old students is the 3SQ - Soft Skill Self-evaluation Questionnaire, used by the Teens’Voice 2018 survey, aimed at students leaving high secondary school. The ten soft skill scales provided by the 3SQ have been maintained. The items were revised before being tested on the field. The analysis of the data highlights significant differences in the self-perception of students’ soft skills with respect to background variables such as: gender, school performance, the pleasure linked to going to school and differences between schools. The self-perception of soft skills by students is, first of all, a reason for reflection on their skills, as a moment of discussion and development on personal and social characteristics that are decisive and can be spent in different life situations.</p> Cristiana De Santis Irene Stanzione Copyright (c) 2020 Cristiana De Santis, Irene Stanzione 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 63 73 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P63 Construction and validation of a tool for evaluating inferential skills in primary school: the AbInf test <p>Reading comprehension is a multidimensional process influenced by many factors of different nature. Through reading, the subject is called to generate micro and macrostructures useful to elaborate a global representation of meaning. One of the causes of students lack reading comprehension is related to the poor ability to make inferences on the text. This paper presents the construction and validation phases of AbInf, a test developed by a research project aimed at pupils attending class V of primary school. It aimed at enhancing inferential skills through the Reciprocal Teaching technique. The pilot experiment<br>has been done on a convenience sample made up of 127 pupils. The results of the validation of the test are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using it in the school context as a tool for evaluating inferential skills.</p> Rosa Vegliante Marta De Angelis Sergio Miranda Copyright (c) 2020 Rosa Vegliante, Marta De Angelis, Sergio Miranda 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 74 88 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P74 Young people and political commitment. The commitment choices of students leaving upper secondary school commented by first-year university students <p>The article presents part of the results of the Teens’ voice 2019-2020 survey and, in particular, the analysis of the answers to an open-ended question on the issues for which students leaving upper secondary school declare themselves available for a political commitment. The sample consists of 753 students who were interviewed during the Saloni Campus Orienta in eight Italian cities. The research shows how young people declare that they want to commit themselves to issues of great social value and that they therefore are open to a political commitment linked to the values of the environment and solidarity. This testifies that the young people leaving secondary school have internalized the values of the Constitution. The authors consider this work the demonstration that it is possible to do research even with first-year students and therefore propose an active approach to teaching at the university level.</p> Pietro Lucisano Emiliane Rubat du Merac Valeria Bruno Copyright (c) 2020 Pietro Lucisano, Emiliane Rubat du Merac, Valeria Bruno 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 89 103 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P89 Teenagers in quarantine, social networks as allies for teaching and emotional education. Experimental research <p>The present work describes and analyses the educational research tools and techniques used so as to suggest guidelines to the educational figures, who must plan pedagogical intervention activities. The aim was to collect information on psychophysical well-being on a sample of adolescents during the<br>lockdown period due to covid-19. The purpose is to highlight how, through educational research, it is possible: to identify concrete methods of intervention to respond to the needs that emerge in educational and training processes; to adapt practices to the characteristics of users and contexts; to evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of practices; and, to replace the "continuous emergency" perspective with a perspective of planning and evaluation. Therefore, the main aim of the research work is the understanding of the lockdown behavioral phenomena implemented by adolescents in order to develop educational practices that are more likely to be effective. They are indeed the starting point of the methodological reflection, since method, tools, and aims are closely linked.</p> Stefania Morsanuto Stefano Rendina Copyright (c) 2020 Stefania Morsanuto, Stefano Rendina 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 104 126 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P104 Protective factors for teachers’ work stress: psychoeducational programs based on self-efficacy and hope to reinforce personal resources <p>Teaching at school is subject to stress and tension, which in some cases can lead to pathological conditions and can also lead to the abandonment of the same profession. In literature, the work of the teacher is often associated with stress, so much so that it is often indicated as one of the jobs most exposed to this phenomenon. As a matter of fact, there are many different sources of stress. For example, teaching unmotivated students, dealing with educational changes, and unsatisfactory working conditions. Persistence over time can lead to a strong personal exhaustion and also to the perception of a decline in one's working abilities accompanied by high levels of fatigue and negative attitudes towards one's work. Starting from some personal resources such as self-efficacy and hope, this study analyses the correlation between these resources and stress in a sample of 95 primary and lower secondary school teachers and then proposes a possible psychoeducational intervention.</p> Anna Maria Mariani Luigi Piceci Francesco Maria Melchiori Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Maria Mariani, Luigi Piceci, Francesco Maria Melchiori 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 127 136 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P127 How to evaluate a Teaching Program through the alumni’s experience: an empirical research that provide insights for teaching optimization <p>Evaluation is a fundamental step in the optimization process of a Teaching Program, however, in order to place it in a transformative perspective, it is necessary to adopt a dynamic vision, oriented to change. A model able to respond to these needs is the developmental evaluation, according to which evaluation is a fluid process, which should go beyond the summative approach. Its aim is to decode the complexity of reality according to a multidimensional vision, that puts a heuristic perspective at the service of the evaluation, in order to explore reality from non-obvious points of view. This is the humus from which the research here presented is born, a research that investigates a Teaching Program involving unusual interlocutors, such as students who have completed the path and are now involved in professional contexts (alumni). The study, through a qualitative approach, analyzes the experience of 42 alumni who participated in the experimental phase of the Service Learning Program promoted by the University of Verona, in order<br>to draw from it insights useful to optimize the program itself. The tool chosen to collect the data is SWOT Analysis because of its ability to shed light on the different sides of a complex organization, such as that of a Teaching Program.</p> Luigina Mortari Roberta Silva Copyright (c) 2020 Luigina Mortari, Roberta Silva 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 137 150 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P137 Keeping school open is necessary, but it is not enough <p>editoriale</p> Pietro Lucisano Copyright (c) 2020 Pietro Lucisano 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 7 8 How to plan an Italian grammar lesson through an eclectic approach <p>The present article describes the process of planning a grammar lesson in Italian using an eclectic approach. The lesson plan follows important grammar teaching principles and it is based on current research findings. Instead of following a specific method, it demonstrates how instructors can draw upon various approaches and theories to adapt the instruction to the learners’ needs and goals. Although the sample lesson plan is for teachers of L2 Italian, its classroom implications extend to the teaching of other languages. The main purpose of this article is to introduce novice language teachers to the activity of lesson planning and to encourage them to use research in education and applied linguistics to inform their teaching practices according to their teaching context.</p> Peter Peltekov Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Peltekov 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 9 21 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P9 The quality of teachers: training, recruitment, career advancement. What scenario? <p>Beyond the specific conditions induced by the health emergency in our country, it is now clear that the school presents itself in a“structural”emergency condition. The situation requires organic and courageous interventions starting from what represents the recognized fulcrum of the school system: the quality of teachers. The article proposes an answer to the complicated (and urgent) question of initial training and entry into teaching for secondary school teachers. After a brief review of the current weaknesses of the Italian school and of the legislative initiatives that have been advanced, modified and replaced in the last twenty years, an overall solution is proposed for a training course progressively oriented towards increasingly advanced expertise levels, which allows also to address the problem of recruitment and career advancement. The premise is a different conception of the training, which focuses the attention on the real school problems, with an indication of effective, reliable and sustainable ways to face them, in opposition to the abstract, cumulative and transmissive traditional model.</p> Roberto Trinchero Antonio Calvani Antonio Marzano Giuliano Vivanet Copyright (c) 2020 Roberto Trinchero, Antonio Calvani, Antonio Marzano, Giuliano Vivanet 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 22 34 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P22 STEM disciplines teaching in Italy <p>This study aims to summarize and expand the results of the most recent national and international surveys on teachers of STEM disciplines in Italy, regarding to the following aspects: 1) personal profile, 2) initial and in-service training, 3) didactic practices adopted, 4) school environment. By comparing and elaborating the data collected on samples of Italian teachers from the 2016/17 National Surveys of INVALSI, from PISA 2015, from TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced 2015, from TALIS 2018, and comparing STEM teachers with teachers of humanities, we highlight that: a), among the first, the feminization of the Italian teaching staff is less marked; b) in the primary school the percentage of graduates is lower; c) in the middle school, science teachers update less than mathematics ones; d) in the high school the percentage of those who have received specific training for teaching is lower; e) the frequency of inquiry-based teaching practices, among other practices, is the one that most negatively departs from the average frequency of the OECD countries; f) there are no statistically significant differences between STEM teachers and the other teachers regarding their relationship with the school environment. This analysis suggests the adoption of policies for the insertion in the primary school of graduates teachers, especially in the scientific field, the promotion of a wider initial and in-service training, which includes and incentives a more solid pedagogical preparation also for teachers of the STEM disciplines.</p> Stefano Scippo Manuela Montebello Donatella Cesareni Copyright (c) 2020 Stefano Scippo, Manuela Montebello, Donatella Cesareni 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 35 48 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P35 When migrant learners are Italian: perceptions of learning support educators on the inclusion of Italians in Maltese schools <p>In this paper we first provide an overview of recent Italian migration to Malta and we then focus our attention on the experiences and perceptions of 42 Learning Support Educators (LSEs) in relation to the inclusion of Italian learners in Maltese secondary, primary and pre-primary schools. Through quantitative findings from a questionnaire and qualitative reflections based on three focus groups we investigate linguistic and socialisation issues, as well as pedagogical practices, and how these lead to the inclusion of Italian nationals in Maltese schools. Results indicate that inclusion in a bilingual schooling system, characterised by the interplay between English and Maltese, presents several challenges for Italian students.<br>While knowledge of English is highly important for their scholastic attainment, Maltese has a fundamental role too especially for socialisation. Problems with language competence also lead to other difficulties. In a system which is often geared towards achieving results in high-stakes examination and in which students are ranked on the basis of achievement, a rethinking of some of the principles that guide education is required, through inclusive pedagogical paradigms based on discovering and giving value to the educational potential of all learners.</p> Barbara Baschiera Sandro Caruana Copyright (c) 2020 Barbara Baschiera, Sandro Caruana 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 151 164 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P151 The Application of Distance Learning (DAD) during the Covid-19 Emergency for Students with certified Disabilities. An Exploratory Investigation <p>In this contribution, after a brief introduction on the Covid-19 emergency scenario, that has come to be determined, starting from the first months of 2020, and after reflecting on the theoretical framework of reference and on the in-service training course addressed to the Teacher Tutor Coordinators of the School for Disability of the Inclusion Pole of Catania“ Italo Calvino”, we want to present the data of an exploratory survey, on the application of distance learning to students with certified disabilities, which involved 2993 teachers between curricula and support of the Inclusion Center of Catania and the Province. From the exploratory survey it emerges that there is still a need to strengthen the in-service training of curricular and support teachers regarding the application of integrated digital teaching, as well as the knowledge of new active and collaborative methodologies aimed at building personalized and class-based training courses in an inclusive perspective.</p> Paolina Mulè Copyright (c) 2020 Paolina Mulè 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 25 165 177 10.7346/SIRD-022020-P165