ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Educational Research (IJEduR)</strong>, the official organ of the Italian Society of Educational Research (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SIRD</a>), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is dedicated to educational and didactic research methodologies and to evaluative research in education.</p> <p>The research areas include: curriculum development, teacher training, school, university and vocational education, teaching organization and design, educational technologies and e-learning, disciplinary teaching, teaching 'inclusive education, methodologies for continuous training, docimology, assessment and certification of skills, evaluation of training processes, assessment and quality of training systems.</p> <p>The papers are published in two issues per year in June and December.</p> Pensa MultiMedia en-US ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 2038-9736 <p>The authors who publish in this magazine accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The authors retain the rights to their work and give the magazine the right to first publish the work, simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution which allows others to share the work indicating the intellectual authorship and the first publication in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors may adhere to other non-exclusive license agreements for the distribution of the version of the published work (eg deposit it in an institutional archive or publish it in a monograph), provided that the first publication took place in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors can disseminate their work online (eg in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and increase citations of the published work.</li> </ol> Behind the numbers. A mixed-methods study of the CLASS tool application in Italy <p>The increasing globalization of tools used to assess ECEC quality requires reflection on their cultural coherence and ecological validity when applied in cultural contexts other than those of origin, as well as on the meaning of inconsistencies at the psychometric level that sometimes emerge - inconsistencies that quantitative methods alone often struggle to explain adequately. This paper proposes an integrated framework that combines the statistical analysis of quality assessment tools with a qualitative exploration of the meanings and interpretations that accompany their use in other cultures. This mixed-methods study, analyzing the implications of the CLASS Pre-K tool application in Italian preschools, offers a broader reflection on the importance and the need to adopt a critical, culturally-sensitive approach when using assessment tools outside their cultural cradle.</p> Valentina Pagani Copyright (c) 2021 Valentina Pagani 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 046 056 10.7346/sird-012021-p46 Validation of Teacher Self-efficacy (QAI) Questionnaire <p>In recent years, several national and international researches have highlighted the importance of Teacher Self Efficacy. Although there are already some Italian tools researching this construct, there are overlaps and divergences in the various factors taken into consideration, such as self-efficacy perception related to the possibility of acting on the engagement of students and the collaboration with the family and other employees. Therefore, this study focuses on the construction and validation of a new tool that considers both of these aspects. <br>The tool consists of 25 items and has been administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 1428 teachers aged between 18 and 66 years (both in-service and in initial training). Later, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmative Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out. The study confirms a trifactorial model with a good adaptation. The results suggest the applicability of the tool in the Italian school context.</p> Alessandra La Marca Valeria Di Martino Copyright (c) 2021 Alessandra La Marca , Valeria Di Martino 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 057 066 10.7346/sird-012021-p57 The impact of educational and organisational variables on the INVALSI School Effect: findings from Puglia <p>The attempt to standardize the factors underlying effective teaching is central to teaching research in re-cent decades. In particular, the pedagogical debate highlighted the impact of the teaching quality on the outcomes of students. We describe the partial results of the work carried out by the research group of the Bari unit in the national research project “Formative educational evaluation for school improvement”, in collaboration with INVALSI, are described. The project aimed to investigate, through a multifactorial ap-proach, differences between institutions with School- Effect (elaborated by Invalsi starting from the stu-dents' results) positive and negative. In terms of teaching practices – the specific object of focus of the following contribution – the analysis was oriented by the desire to understand the explicit and implicit variables of micro-context (related to the three constructs of design, teaching and evaluation) at the basis of the teaching quality. Through a questionnaire were explored beliefs, attitudes towards teaching and declarations of practices implemented by teachers. 443 Apulian teachers working in 18 secondary schools took part in the study. The results showed some differences between teachers belonging to schools with positive versus negative levels of school effect. Schools with high ES show to be more “selective” than schools with low ES; in schools with low ES – where there are more difficulties and heterogeneity of context – teachers feel, in addition to a greater confidence in the transformative potential of teaching, also a greater need for inclusive practices...</p> Loredana Perla Viviana Vinci Patrizia Soleti Copyright (c) 2021 Loredana Perla, Viviana Vinci, Patrizia Soleti 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 10.7346/sird-012021-p67 Understanding the text to study it: specific learning disorders and inclusive and effective teaching strategies <p>Starting from the identification of a particularly relevant problem such as the low levels of reading comprehension in the Italian school and their repercussions on the study activities, the article presents some results relating to the research project: Reading comprehension and study strategies with high inclusive potential for students with specific learning disorders (SLD). Within an inclusive perspective and on the basis of effective teaching strategies in the evidence based education (EBE) perspective, the project created and tested - using a Design Based Research - both a didactic kit (SUST) for fifth grade classes attended by pupils with SLD and a training method for the teachers of the intervention classes. The positive results of the application of the kit and the teacher training open up a constructive scenario for the definition of a program aimed to improve reading comprehension and the study skills of students with SLD to be tested in a bigger number of schools.</p> Amalia Lavinia Rizzo Marianna Traversetti Copyright (c) 2021 Amalia Lavinia Rizzo , Marianna Traversetti 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 088 104 10.7346/sird-012021-p88 Online laboratories for science education: a summary of evidence <p>In this study, the results of a second-order systematic review concerning the impact of online (virtual and remote) laboratories on learning in STEM education for secondary school students are discussed. After the selection phase, based on eligibility criteria, ten systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included. The comparative analysis of data provides useful information for the instructional design of laboratory activities mediated by technologies and for the future research. In particular, results showed that online laboratories generally support learning outcomes comparable to those in traditional laboratories; and they suggest that some factors (e.g. teacher training; coherence of goals, laboratory activities, assessment; teacher feedback; integration of online-traditional laboratory activities) can maximize their efficacy. In addition, methodological limitations of current literature suggest the need for further primary studies with a more rigorous design.</p> Daniela Fadda Giuliano Vivanet Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Fadda , Giuliano Vivanet 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 105 117 10.7346/sird-012021-p105 Activity Theory and Digital Storytelling as tools for the development of professional skills in higher education <p>The exploratory research describes a teaching experience in a Course in Educational Sciences where, in order to stimulate reflection on students' future professional skills, a method involving the use of Activity Theory and Digital Storytelling was experimented. Following the narration of professionale real-life episodes (storytelling), the problem-solving methods adopted by a Community of Practice were analysed through the Activity Theory Model. Subsequently, the analysis were used for the creation of Digital Storytelling while also highlighting the emotional aspects related to the problem solving processes adopted by the Community of Practice. This balancing act between "reason" and "emotion" has stimulated students to objectively recognize the possible best professional practices in systemic critical situations in educational and social contexts. We report some results that emerged from the qualitative-quantitative survey that involved the students at the end of the activities.</p> Cinzia Ferranti Corrado Petrucco Copyright (c) 2021 Cinzia Ferranti , Corrado Petrucco 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 118 128 10.7346/sird-012021-p118 From the class to the forest. An explorative research at primary school <p>Recently, the experiences and reflections regarding outdoor education in schools have been gradually spreading in Italy. Despite a quite ancient history and a favourable climate in many areas of the country, outdoor education is not yet widespread and primarily limited to pre-school, often in the private sector. To overcome this limitation, a pilot outdoor project was tested in a primary school to verify its effectiveness in terms of disciplinary and transversal skills development. The research adopted an exploratory evaluation research approach and used a variety of both quantitative and qualitative tools and procedures. School sessions in the forest focused on Italian language contents were observed and questionnaires on school well-being, parallel school tests, and, for the second class, also the results of the Invalsi tests were analysed. Interesting data emerged, especially from a qualitative point of view, as already demonstrated by many studies carried out at the European level, regarding the support of learning processes. No significant results emerged from the point of view of the discipline in the classes involved in the project, above all due to the impossibility of guaranteeing children regular sessions in the forest.</p> Emilia Restiglian Silvia Azzolin Sabrina De Lazzaro Maddalena Traldi Marta Turco Copyright (c) 2021 Emilia Restiglian, Silvia Azzolin , Sabrina De Lazzaro , Maddalena Traldi , Marta Turco 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 129 140 10.7346/sird-012021-p129 360-degree video in education: an overview of the literature <p>For years now, the need for renewal of higher education has been discussed at a national and international level, with a focus on both new teaching methods and technological innovations. The integration and use of ICTs can, in fact, represent a catalyst for wider processes of improvement of the teaching-learning process, with implications not only at organizational and communication level, but also in terms of increasing students’ protagonism and collaboration. Among the latest generation of tech-nologies, a particularly interesting area is that of immersive environments, ranging from augmented to virtual reality. According to recent literature, they may have a positive impact both in terms of involvement and transfer of knowledge into real contexts. In this article, the focus is on 360-degree video technology: through the systematic analysis of the literature here presented, their educational uses will be highlighted, especially with respect to the university.&nbsp;</p> Isabella Bruni Maria Ranieri Damiana Luzzi Copyright (c) 2021 Isabella Bruni , Maria Ranieri , Damiana Luzzi 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 017 028 10.7346/sird-012021-p17 For a real economic and financial literacy of future generations <p>This paper focuses on the economic and financial literacy of future generations of teachers, that are currently students of the degree course in Primary Education. The unique survey carried out through a questionnaire distributed to the 2321 students of ten Italian universities other than confirming the general lack of knowledge of this sample on both economic and financial issues, also made it possible to identify, by means of a linear regression analysis, the individual characteristics that affect the participants' knowledge. The results confirm the need to set up training courses for teachers, especially since the EduFin Committee has given them the task of teaching this knowledge as a transversal issue included in the curriculum.</p> Luca Refrigeri Florindo Palladino Copyright (c) 2021 Luca Refrigeri , Florindo Palladino 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 029 045 10.7346/sird-012021-p29 Indice <p>Indice</p> Technical Staff Copyright (c) 2021 Technical Staff 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26 000 006 EDITORIAL PIETRO LUCISANO Copyright (c) 2021 PIETRO LUCISANO 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 26