ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Educational Research (IJEduR)</strong>, the official organ of the Italian Society of Educational Research (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SIRD</a>), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is dedicated to educational and didactic research methodologies and to evaluative research in education.</p> <p>The research areas include: curriculum development, teacher training, school, university and vocational education, teaching organization and design, educational technologies and e-learning, disciplinary teaching, teaching 'inclusive education, methodologies for continuous training, docimology, assessment and certification of skills, evaluation of training processes, assessment and quality of training systems.</p> <p>The papers are published in two issues per year in June and December.</p> en-US <p>The authors who publish in this magazine accept the following conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The authors retain the rights to their work and give the magazine the right to first publish the work, simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License - Attribution which allows others to share the work indicating the intellectual authorship and the first publication in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors may adhere to other non-exclusive license agreements for the distribution of the version of the published work (eg deposit it in an institutional archive or publish it in a monograph), provided that the first publication took place in this magazine.</li> <li class="show">Authors can disseminate their work online (eg in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and increase citations of the published work.</li> </ol> (Prof. Pietro Lucisano, PhD) (Pensa MultiMedia) Tue, 28 Sep 2021 20:09:53 +0000 OJS 60 Formative Assessment in Online Learning Environments: effective practice in first cycle of education <p>The health emergency has partially modified the teaching practices that were usually implemented in the classroom, especially after a more massive use of distance or integrated digital teaching. From some national surveys conducted with teachers, the difficulty in implementing an adequate assess-ment of students’ learning and skills during online teaching emerged: often, teachers used the same prac-tices and procedures traditionally implemented in classroom, not considering the changed context in which the latter were inserted. Regardless of the cogent emergency situation, we believe that every teacher must be able to know and use different assessment methods and tools, even in online or blended learning environments. In fact, evaluation has an important formative function that accompanies the entire teaching/learning process, which must absolutely not be neglected or entrusted to random interventions. The aim of the contribution is to describe the contributions of formative assessment in the teaching/learning process presenting, at the same time, practices and tools that can also be implemented in online learning environments. The target taken as a reference is that relating to the first cycle of education.</p> Marta De Angelis , Mariagrazia Santonicola Copyright (c) 2021 Marta De Angelis , Mariagrazia Santonicola Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching during the Covid emergency from reorganization to redesign. Teachers’ and families’ point of view <p>During the first lockdown, the health crisis forced schools to initiate emergency distance learning (Dad) to comply with the rules of containment of the contagion. Distance learning was the only possible solution to ensure teaching and educational continuity and maintain the relationship with students and families. Schools have been engaged in the reorganization of activities and have had to face critical and unforeseen situations that educational research has tried to detect and analyze. With the start of the new school year, educational institutions had to redesign their educational offerings taking into account the experience they had during the first lockdown. Starting from the SIRD national survey, the present research analyzed more in-depth teaching during this emergency, gathering with a local exploratory survey both quantitative and qualitative data involving primary school teachers and parents. The objective was to compare the teachers’ and the parents’ points of view, triangulating them, in order to reflect on the perceptions and dynamics that have characterized the school-family relationship. The results of the research allowed us to identify the problematic aspects and to enhance the quality elements that can contribute consolidating educational co-responsibility and widespread educational leadership, dimensions considered strategic to dealing with unforeseen situations and possible future emergencies.</p> Giovanni Moretti , Arianna L. Morini Copyright (c) 2021 Giovanni Moretti , Arianna L. Morini Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A first descriptive analysis of the open questions in the SIRD survey: Campania teachers’ responses <p>The DPCM of 4 March 2020 sanctioned the suspension of face-to-face teaching activities, consequently all schools had to reorganize the training offer in the form of distance learning. This article is part of the national survey carried out by the Italian Society for Educational Research (SIRD) in collaboration with teachers' associations (AIMC, CIDI, FNISM, MCE, SALTAMURI, UCIIM), aimed at detecting the situation experienced by teachers during the health emergency Covid-19. The aim is to provide an initial analysis of the answers from teachers in Campania Region to the four open questions of the SIRD questionnaire. The analysis unit consists of 595 teachers belonging to different school orders and grades present in the regional territory. The study, making use of the categorical model derived from post-coding, presents the distribution of occurrences regarding the difficulties encountered by the students, the strengths and weak-nesses of the distance learning, and to which are added freely expressed comments and reflections. From the interpretation of the data, a detailed description of the topic emerges, in different contexts and according to different perspectives, both at a micro and macro categorical level.</p> Rosa Vegliante , Carole Montefusco Copyright (c) 2021 Rosa Vegliante , Carole Montefusco Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Before and during the pandemic: teaching practices and teacher training in different school levels and grades <p>How did the teaching practices of teachers change during the Covid-19 emergency? How did the teachers train to deal with it? The case study presented in this article is based on data collected through an online questionnaire administered to a sample of almost 1000 teachers (from kindergarten to upper secondary school) participating in a MOOC (“massive” online course) made available by HOC-LAB of the Politecnico di Milano between March and June 2020. The results tell us that remote teaching is significantly adopted when the pandemic arrives, with an increase in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous one as the school level increases. New forms of interaction between teacher and pupils are born (individual meetings, small group meetings in extra-school hours); there is a correlation between the commitment to guarantee synchronous lessons and the availability for these further meetings (proactive approach), as well as between the sharing of videos (found on the internet) and the sharing of asynchronous materials compared to synchronous meetings (more “traditional” approach). As for training, teachers have resorted to forms that are not particularly institutionalized (MOOCs, web resources, colleagues...), confirming an already existing pre-pandemic trend.</p> Nicoletta Di Blas, Manuela Fabbri , Luca Ferrari , Marco Trentini Copyright (c) 2021 Nicoletta Di Blas, Manuela Fabbri , Luca Ferrari , Marco Trentini Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Online supervision as a supporting tool to define curricular internship programmes: a research on future Nursery School educators <p>In rethinking the articulation of training activities following the COVID-19 pandemic, university contexts have had to face a complex challenge: the reorganization of internships within the course curriculum. Re-designing these experiences while taking into account public health and local needs has led to the sudden transformation of consolidated practices, and this has often been a source of disorientation and concern for both students and teacher-tutors. <br>This paper explores research developed in the 2020/21 academic year at the Department of Education of Roma Tre University. The main objective was to verify the effectiveness of an online supervision path in guiding and defining the internship experience of students, also in order to identify a useful model to be disseminated among teachers who perform the function of tutors. During the path the students worked in small groups through remote activities in synchronous and asynchronous mode and qualitative and quantitative tools were used. In addition to how the online training actions were designed, the data collected allowed us to reflect on the added value that the encouragement of an active and collaborative approach can give to curricular internship paths, especially in a crisis situation such as the current one. From the students’ point of view as well, working on specific guided paths with the use of supervision methodology can be useful to orient them during the internship experience and to give support on a cognitive and emotional level with respect to what they achieve in receiving structures in face-to-face mode and/or remotely.&nbsp;</p> Arianna Giuliani Copyright (c) 2021 Arianna Giuliani Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Technologies for inclusion. The training of the support teacher: a survey in schools in the Abruzzo Region in the light of the Covid-19 pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has, directly and indirectly, had a strong impact on education, on all school grades as well as on the university. For example, students, institutions, teachers and families had to respond un-predictably to the transition from a face-to-face teaching to a remote teaching (Distance Teaching and Integrated Digital Teaching). Need to create learning environments, as per their projection (in terms of accessibility) the teachers were not yet prepared. The present survey involved 116 support teachers, but without specialization, in schools of any orders and degrees in the Abruzzo Region. The aim was to indi-cate, through the testimony of teachers, how schools and teachers themselves have 'reacted' to the pandemic emergency in terms of management organization, inclusive teaching planning, teachers training. We also try to identify what skills in distance learning, these latter possessed. We wanted to solicit a systematic reflection on the DaD design aimed at students with BES, at promoting inclusive processes in the direction of certain accessibility to distance or blended teaching, and incoming training, aimed at support teachers that allows them to optimize learning processes in an online environment. This contaminates the 'computer' dimension of teaching with the cooperative pedagogical one.</p> Maria Vittoria Isidori , Anna Maria Ciraci Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Vittoria Isidori , Anna Maria Ciraci Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 University students and Distance Learning: resilience and perception of workload <p>The spread of Covid-19 has brought with it many changes and has required education systems to respond to the various challenges posed by the extraordinary event (OECD, 2020). From the perspective of emer-gency pedagogy (Isidori &amp; Vaccarelli, 2013), the largest online teaching experimentation in history, if on the one hand it has favored the continuation of teaching-learning processes, on the other hand it has moved them from traditional settings to virtual environments (Zimmerman, 2020). This contribution aims to investigate the perceptions of university students regarding the Distance Learning, through a monitoring questionnaire administered through social channels. Specifically, the intent is to analyze the relationship between resilience strategies and the ability to manage the workload required during the months of lock-down. Initially configured as a health emergency, the pandemic soon became a socio-economic-educa-tional emergency that required all the actors involved to rethink the times, tools, methodologies and spaces and to resist the unexpected event by focusing on some subjective dimensions that can influence the per-ception of the university experience (Marzano, 2012).</p> Eleonora Mattarelli Copyright (c) 2021 Eleonora Mattarelli Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effects of the Covid emergency on the well-being and the achievement of the objectives of the teachers: a comparison between the different didactics' methods <p>In consideration of the enormous changes in the workplace caused by the spread of the Sars-Cov-2 virus, this contribution focuses on the consequences in the perceptions of the work context and some health aspects of teachers of all levels. The school, in fact, was one of the institutions to undergo major organizational upheavals, at first with the lockdown in March 2020 which led to the sudden transition from face-to-face to remote teaching and then with the start of digital teaching. integrated which further differentiated the school contexts. The contribution, which is the result of an exploratory research, shows the preliminary results of a survey on a sample of convenience of 335 teachers aimed at investigating the differences in the conditions of well-being, stress, and perceptions of the working context in relation to the achievement the work objectives and the different ways of carrying out teaching. The data show sta-tistically significant differences to the disadvantage of teachers who carry out teaching in blended mode, together with the presence of significant relationships that link the different aspects considered to the achievement of work objectives towards students and parents.</p> Irene Stanzione , Cristiana De Santis Copyright (c) 2021 Irene Stanzione , Cristiana De Santis Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distracting effects of Smartphones on university students in online classes during lockdown pandemic <p>The article presents a research carried out on 93 university students of a master degree in education on the problem of attention deficit during online lessons in the period of the pandemic, the smartphone being the main distractor. The results of the questionnaire show that most of the students have the perception of being affected by smartphone addiction, and more than the half say they use it during the lessons to consult Social Networks or surf the Web. The results also confirm that the age is a significant predictor of the problematic use of the smartphone, especially in the younger age group spanning from16 to 25 years old. Finally, the article proposes possible pedagogical interventions to curb the effects of excessive use of smartphones during the online and face-to-face lessons.</p> Corrado Petrucco Copyright (c) 2021 Corrado Petrucco Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mastery in distance learning, effectiveness and equity. The point of view of teachers in the SIRD survey in Emilia-Romagna <p>The article presents a research carried out on 93 university students of a master degree in education on This paper is a focus of the SIRD National Survey on Distance Learning (DL) on the reality of teachers in Emilia-Romagna. A total of 3.423 in-service teachers in the region (or 6% of total teachers in the region) participated in the survey, out of 16.133 teachers participating nationally. Teachers responded to an online questionnaire during the first 2020 lockdown in Italy. This observational research aims to explore teachers' perceived differences in levels of DL’s criticality and resources, and levels of evaluation of effectiveness for learning and inclusion. These insights were conducted by considering different conditions of mastery in DL (lack of training, training, lack of experience, experience, mastery). It went on to explore the models that best predict perceptions of effectiveness for learning and inclusion among the five mastery conditions in DL. Descriptive analyses and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed. The results show that the teachers' DL mastery condition corresponds, with significant differences from the other conditions, to lower levels of criticality and a more positive perception of potential resources. In addition, it emerges the central role of the perception of adequate assessment to ensure effectiveness for learning and inclusion of all students. It seems useful to imagine future training courses for teachers who know how to combine theoretical preparation with practical experience in supervised DL, possibly linked to moments of assessment for learning or as learning.</p> Andrea Ciani , Aurora Ricci , Ira Vannini Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Ciani , Aurora Ricci , Ira Vannini Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pandemic and educational realities 0-6: an exploratory study on the “restart” <p>from September 2020, in Italy, day-care centres and nursery schools have begun to welcome children “in presence” but with a completely new organizational structure due to the distancing and safety regulations imposed by the health authorities. By an exploratory survey we wanted to face the following questions: what responses did the “restart” under the banner of health constraints raise in 0-6 teachers in terms of perceived difficulties or positivity and activated strategies? Such answers, what pedagogical positions do they reveal? At the beginning of the 2020/21 school year, a questionnaire was delivered to 28 educational realities, focused on five themes: “relationships with children”, “relationships between children”, “relationships with parents”, “relationships between colleagues”, “spaces review”; for each of them, the ques-tionnaire asked each working group to discuss and indicate the positive and critical aspects perceived following the first impact with the new organizational structure, in addition to the strategies implemented. The data analysis was conducted according to an inductive method. With respect to the “relationship with children” and the “relationship between colleagues”, the data reveal, in both cases, a clear preference of the relationship in presence and an ambivalence connected to the “closure” in the bubble groups; with respect to this solution both risks of self-referentiality and positivity on the socio-relational level are in fact signaled. These results are discussed with the filter of some basic assumptions of ECEC pedagogy.</p> Anna Bondioli , Donatella Savio Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Bondioli , Donatella Savio Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The WebQuest as an evaluation tool <p>In the current cultural landscape, dominated by the web and the massive use of digital devices, we are in-creasingly moving towards the use of new teaching methods, centred on the learners that are the protagonist of their own learning process. These new methodologies aim to encourage learning and collaboration. The recent situation, unfortunately, characterized by the Covid-19 pandemic, has placed even more emphasis on this type of active teaching methodologies. Among them is the WebQuest, a guided online research for learning various disciplines. The WebQuest is divided into several phases rang-ing from the sharing of websites to obtain information, up to the preparation and presentation of a group work obtained by processing the information found on the pointed out websites. The WebQuest therefore allows participants to spend time processing the suggested information rather than searching for it. This study consisted in the experimentation of a WebQuest designed for two groups of students from both the University of Salerno and the University of Napoli “Parthenope”, in order to verify its potential also as an evaluation tool. From this carried out experience, it emerged that the methodology of the WebQuest, in addition to avoiding the disorientation of free navigation, favoured a formative use of the in-ternet, by placing the comparison with the data available on the web and cooperative learning on significant tasks at the centre of the didactic action. Moreover, it has proved particularly effective also as an evaluation tool, clearly highlighting the skills acquired by the students during this experience.</p> Sergio Miranda , Davide Di Palma Copyright (c) 2021 Sergio Miranda , Davide Di Palma Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The teacher training project "Non Da Soli - La Scuola Di Fronte All'Emergenza: La Didattica a Distanza". Tutoring as strategy of professional accompaniment <p>This contribution, through the presentation of the results of the assessment process of the project “Non Da Soli-La Scuola Di Fronte All’emergenza: La Didattica A Distanza” promoted by Save the Children and supervised by the University of Milano-Bicocca, aims to outline the training process in order to define the educational role of the tutor, here defined as a figure who offers professional accompaniment to in-service teachers. This project was intended to provide through a tutoring program professional support to about 850 teachers from 70 schools distributed across 13 regions. Tutoring was provided remotely. The aim of the research is to describe the main features of the tutoring process taking into consideration the point of view of the participants -- teachers and tutors -- regarding the training methodologies adopted, educational functions enabled by tutors and the learning outcomes perceived by participants. Data was collected in July and December 2020 by way of questionnaires completed by the teachers and tutors. Descriptive uni-variate analysis and reflexive thematic analysis was applied to the data. Results indicate three main aspects of the tutoring process distributed across the following areas: a) the value of contextualizing and person-alizing the training program to meet the educational needs of the teacher; b) the value of collaboration between tutors and teachers and among teachers themselves; c) the challenge teachers faced in reconciling theory with practice. The discussion of the results draws attention to a need for continued exploration of tutoring as a training methodology for professional accompaniment of in-service teachers.</p> Franco Passalacqua , Monica Zanon , Sofia Bosatelli Copyright (c) 2021 Franco Passalacqua , Monica Zanon , Sofia Bosatelli Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating a Finnish web-based platform to nurture a sense of initiative and entrepreneurship in three Italian upper secondary schools during COVID-19 pandemic <p>This contribution provides preliminary results relating to the evaluation of a web-based platform for cul-tivating a sense of initiative and entrepreneurship in compulsory education. This platform is used in Finland and abroad, and it was experimented for the first time in three Italian upper secondary schools as substitute of work experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article presents entrepreneurship education in Europe, and it explores the educational policies related to entrepreneurship in Italy. Next, it shows the model the platform is based on, and presents this evaluative study as multiple embedded case study: Focus groups were organized in the three classes with students and teachers, who performed a SWOT analysis on the use of platform as work experience. The analyses were subsequently validated through interviews to teachers. The explorative research questions concern: the first evaluation of the web platform; the extent this platform can be used for work experience; and possible differences of the application of the platform in the three contexts. Preliminary results suggest that the use of the platform as cross curricular subject during work experience nurtures a sense of initiative and entrepreneurship taken as key competence for lifelong learning.</p> Daniele Morselli , Jaana Seikkula-Leino Copyright (c) 2021 Daniele Morselli , Jaana Seikkula-Leino Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distance learning as seen by teachers, pupils and families: a self-evaluation process in an elementary school <p>Because of the Covid-19 outbreak, since March 2020, Italian schools have had to face distance learning. Some schools even undertook distance-learning monitoring. This study will document a self-assessment initiative in an elementary school of Rome, which aims at learning about teaching practices and tools im-plemented by teachers, the technical, relational and teaching difficulties, the pupils and families’ opinions about the school and about teachers initiatives. The descriptive survey was conducted by means of online questionnaires, which were administered to three groups: the questionnaire of the SIRD national research on distance learning was administered to the teachers; other two questionnaires were constructed for pupils and families by a team of school teachers. 138 teachers, 457 pupils and 702 family members re-sponded to the questions. <br>The purpose of the school was not only to know – by consulting the three components involved – what happened in the emergency phase, but also to have data in order to plan future initiatives. The article will present the main results that emerged from closed questions; open questions results will be analyzed in a subsequent study. Various aspects emerge from the data, including: general satisfaction of families and pupils with the prox-imity and availability of teachers, their satisfaction with the collaboration with colleagues and with the ini-tiatives launched by the school. The increase of working hours and the low effectiveness of distance learning for learning and inclusion were also highlighted.&nbsp;</p> Giusi Castellana , Luca Rossi Copyright (c) 2021 Giusi Castellana , Luca Rossi Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prime pagine <p>Prime pagine</p> Technical Staff Copyright (c) 2021 Technical Staff Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EDITORIAL <p>Editoriale</p> Pietro Lucisano Copyright (c) 2021 Pietro Lucisano Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000