The TASC learning framework for the education of non-cognitive skills

Applications in schools of all levels


  • Alessandra Imperio Faculty of Education, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
  • Demis Basso Cognitive and Educational Sciences Lab (CESLab), Faculty of Education, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)



non-cognitive competences, life skills, thinking skills, TASC, teaching methods


The recent approval in the Chamber of Deputies of the draft law aims at introducing non-cognitive competences in the curriculum of schools of all levels on an experimental basis. While this is a relevant proposal, this article identifies some aspects for improvement based on the scientific literature. In particular, the use of an innovative learning framework, Thinking Actively in a Social Context (TASC) by Belle Wallace and Harvey B. Adams, is suggested as it is considered a valuable proposal for the promotion of thinking and problem-solving skills. In the context of primary education in Italy, this approach has already been used for accurate experimentation, from which significant trends have emerged in terms of thinking skills (e.g., reasoning, metacognition, creativity), argumentation, and interaction (e.g., peer relations, autonomy), but also in terms of motivation, self-esteem, inclusion and, more generally, learning processes. With the same learning framework, other promising experiences have been conducted in kindergarten, at university, and in adult training, which will be reported on in the text. The outlined proposal is considered a valuable contribution to non-cognitive competences education for students at all levels.


Benadusi, L., & Molina, S. (a cura di). (2018). Le competenze. Una mappa per orientarsi. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Commissione Europea. (s.d.). ESCOpedia. URL: competences#Transversal (consultato il 4 febbraio 2022).

Consiglio dell’Unione europea. (2018). Raccomandazione del Consiglio del 22 maggio 2018 relativa alle competenze chiave per l’apprendimento permanente. Gazzetta ufficiale dell’Unione europea (2018/C 189/01). URL: 0604(01) (consultato il 3 maggio 2019).

Costa, P.T. Jr, & McCrae, R.R. (1986). Personality Stability and its Implications for Clinical Psychology. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 407-423.

Heckman, J.J., & Rubinstein, Y. (2001). The Importance of Noncognitive Skills: Lessons from the GED Testing Program. The American Economic Review, 91(2), Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May 2001), 145-149.

Autore. (in press). Dettagli omessi per revisione in doppio cieco.

Ordinanza Ministeriale del 4 dicembre 2020, n. 172. Valutazione periodica e finale degli apprendimenti delle alunne e degli alunni delle classi della scuola primaria. URL: (consultato il 3 marzo 2022).

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2018). Social and Emotional Skills. Well-being, connectedness, and success. URL: Social%20and%20Emotional%20Skills%20-%20Well-being,%20connectedness%20and%20success.pdf %20(website).pdf (consultato l’8 febbraio 2022).

Partnership for 21st Century Learning [P21]. (s.d.). What is 21st Century Learning and Citizenship All About? Education for a Changing World. A Parents’ Guide for 21st Century Learning and Citizenship. URL: (consultato il 4 febbraio 2022).

Partnership for 21st Century Learning [P21]. (2019). Framework for 21st Century Learning. A unified vision for learning to ensure student success in a world where change is constant and learning never stops. URL: (consultato il 26 aprile 2022).

Perrenoud, P. (2005). Dieci nuove competenze per insegnare. Invito al viaggio (M. Grandinetti, Trad.; II ed.). Roma: Anicia. (Opera originale pubblicata 1999).

Proposta di Legge n. 2372-A. Disposizioni per la prevenzione della dispersione scolastica mediante l’introduzione sperimentale delle competenze non cognitive nel metodo didattico (2021). URL: 0166270.pdf (consultato il 31 gennaio 2022).

Sala, A., Punie, Y., Garkov, V., & Cabrera Giraldez, M. (2020). LifeComp: The European Framework for Personal, Social and Learning to Learn Key Competence, EUR 30246 EN. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. URL: (consultato il 24 gennaio 2021).

Tessaro, F. (2012). Lo sviluppo della competenza. Indicatori e processi per un modello di valutazione. Formazione e Insegnamento, 10(1), 105-119.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (2013). Glossary of Curriculum Terminology. Switzerland: UNESCO International Bureau of Education. URL: (consultato il 4 febbraio 2022).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (2018). Preparing Teachers for Global Citizenship Education. A Template. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok Office. URL: (consultato il 4 febbraio 2022).

Wallace, B. (2001). Teaching Thinking Skills Across the Primary Curriculum. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Wallace, B. (2002). Teaching Thinking Skills Across the Early Years. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Wallace, B., & Bentley, R. (2002). Teaching Thinking Skills Across the Middle Years. A Practical Approach for Children Aged 9-14. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Wallace, B., Maker, J., Cave, D., & Chandler, S. (2004). Thinking Skills and Problem-Solving An Inclusive Approach. A Practical Guide for Teachers in Primary Schools. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Williamson, B. (2017). Moulding student emotions through computational psychology: affective learning technologies and algorithmic governance. Education Media International, 54(4), 267-288.

World Economic Forum [WEF]. (2015). New Vision for Education. Unlocking the Potential of Technology. Switzerland: World Economic Forum. URL: Education_Report2015.pdf (consultato il 21 febbraio 2020).

World Health Organization. Division of Mental Health. [WHO]. (1994). Life skills education for children and adolescents in schools. Pt. 1, Introduction to life skills for psychosocial competence. Pt. 2, Guidelines to facilitate the development and implementation of life skills programmes (II rev.). World Health Organization. URL: (consultato il 17 maggio 2019).



How to Cite

Imperio, A., & Basso, D. (2022). The TASC learning framework for the education of non-cognitive skills: Applications in schools of all levels. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, (29).