Protective factors for teachers’ work stress: psychoeducational programs based on self-efficacy and hope to reinforce personal resources


  • Anna Maria Mariani
  • Luigi Piceci
  • Francesco Maria Melchiori



stress, self-efficacy, hope, mindfulness, burnout


Teaching at school is subject to stress and tension, which in some cases can lead to pathological conditions and can also lead to the abandonment of the same profession. In literature, the work of the teacher is often associated with stress, so much so that it is often indicated as one of the jobs most exposed to this phenomenon. As a matter of fact, there are many different sources of stress. For example, teaching unmotivated students, dealing with educational changes, and unsatisfactory working conditions. Persistence over time can lead to a strong personal exhaustion and also to the perception of a decline in one's working abilities accompanied by high levels of fatigue and negative attitudes towards one's work. Starting from some personal resources such as self-efficacy and hope, this study analyses the correlation between these resources and stress in a sample of 95 primary and lower secondary school teachers and then proposes a possible psychoeducational intervention.


Avallone, F., Pepe, S., & Porcelli, R. (2007). Autoefficacia percepita nella ricerca del lavoro: Scale di misura. In A. Grimaldi (Ed.), Bisogni, valori e autoefficacia nella scelta del lavoro (pp. 133-142). Roma: ISFOL.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007) The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. F. Feeman.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy belief of adolescents, 307-337. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Betoret, F. D. (2009). Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach. Educational Psychology, 29, 45-68.

Brdar, I., & Kashdan, T. B. (2010). Character strengths and well-being in Croatia: An empirical investigation of structure and correlates. Journal of research in personality, 44(1), 151-154.

Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (1999). Teacher burnout, perceived self-efficacy in classroom management, and student disruptive behaviour in secondary education. Curriculum and Teaching, 14(2), 7–26.

Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211-237.

Bullough Jr, R. V., & Hall-Kenyon, K. M. (2012). On teacher hope, sense of calling, and commitment to teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly, 7-27.

Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P.S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473-490.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. S. (2005). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology, 231-243. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, S., Kessler, R.C., & Underwood Gordon, L. (1997). Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists. New York: Oxford University Press on Demand.

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 1189-1204.

Fernet, C., Guay, F., Senécal, C., & Austin, S. (2012). Predicting Intraindividual Changes in Teacher Burnout: The Role of Perceived School Environment and Motivational Factors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 514-525.

Geving, A. M. (2007). Identifying the types of student and teacher behaviours associated with teacher stress. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 624-640.

Grebner, S., Elferingand, A., & Semmer, K. (2010).The success resource model of job stress. In D. C. Ganster & P. L. Perrewe (Eds.), New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress. Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, vol. 8, 61-108. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Han, S.S., & Weiss, B. (2005) Sustainability of Teacher Implementation of School-Based Mental Health Programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(6), 665–679.

Hellman, C.M., Pittman, M.K., & Munoz, R.T. (2013). The First Twenty Years of the Will and the Ways: An Examination of Score Reliability Distribution on Snyder’s Dispositional Hope Scale. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 723-729.

Herman, K.C., Hickmon-Rosa, J., & Reinke, W.M. (2018). Empirically Derived Profiles ofTeacher Stress, Burnout, Self-Efficacy, and Coping and Associated Student Outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(2), 90-100.

Hobfoll, S.E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307-324.

Hobfoll, S.E., Johnson, R.J, Ennis, N., & Jackson, A.P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632-643.

İpek, H., Akcay, A., Bayindir Atay, S., Berber, G., Karalik, T., & Yilmaz, T.S. (2018). The Relationship Between Occupational Stress And Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Study With EFL Instructors. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 8(1), 126-150. DOI: 10.18039/ajesi.393945. JASP, T. (2020). JASP (Version 0.12. 2)[computer software].

Jennett, H. K., Harris, S. L., & Mesibov, G. B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 583-593.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.

Kačmárová, M., & Kravcová, M. (2011). Zdroje stresu a stratégie zvládania v u ite skej profesii. In M. Mária Dupkalová & I. Ištvan (Eds.), Medzinárodná vedecká elektronická konferencia pre doktorandov, vedeckých pracovníkov a mladých vysokoškolských u ite ov, 215-223. Prešov: FHPV.

Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2005). From thought and experience to behavior and interpersonal relationships: A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity. In A. Tesser, J. V. Wood, D. A. Stapel, & A. Diederik (Eds.), On building, defending and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (pp. 31-52). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

Khan, A., Shah, IM., Khan, S., & Gul, S. (2012). Teachers’ Stress, Performance & Resources The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress & Performance. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2, 21-29

Klassen, R., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741-756.

Kokkinos, C. M. (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 229-243.

Kutcher, E., Bragger, J., Srednicki, R. & Masco, J. L. (2010). The role of religiosity in stress, job attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 319-337.

Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27-35.

Lamal, P. A. (1990). On the importance of replication. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(4), 31-35. Online ISSN: 2168-3263.

Lamude, K. G., Scudder, J., & Furno-Lamude, D. (1992). The relationship of student resistance strategies in the classroom to teacher burnout and teacher type-A behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 597–610.

Liu, S., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2012). Chinese Teachers’ Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 160-170.

Luria, G., & Torjman, A. (2009). Resources and coping with stressful events. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 30(6), 685-707.

Malinowski, P. (2008). Mindfulness as psychological dimension: concepts and applications. Irish Journal of Psychology, 29(1), 155-166.

Malinowski, P., & Lim, H.J. (2015) Mindfulness at Work: Positive Affect, Hope, and Optimism Mediate the relationship Between Dispositional Mindfulness, Work Engagement, and Well-Being. Mindfulness, 60, 1250-1262.

Marques, S. C., Pais-Ribeiro, J., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). The impact of a hope intervention on positive thinking, mental-health and academic achievement in middle-school students. Psychology & Health, 24, supl. 1.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S.E. (1981).The Measurement of Experienced Burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2(2), 99-113.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 397-422.

Meiklejohn, J., Phillips, C., Freedman, M.L., Griffin, M.L., Biegel, G., Roach, A., Frank, E., Burke, C., Pinger, L. Soloway, G., Isberg, R., Sibinga, E., Grossman, L., & Saltzman, A. (2012). Integrating Mindfulness Training into K-12 Education: Fostering the Resilience of Teachers and Students. Mindfulness, 3, 291–307.

Nave, T., & Roman, A. (2018). Is Positive Thinking Magical? In ERD 2018 - Education, Reflection, Development, 6th Edition, Book Series: European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 63, 259-265.

Nietfield, J.L., & Enders, C.K. (2003). An examination of student teacher beliefs: Interrelationships between hope, self-efficacy, goal-orientations, and beliefs about learning. Education, 6, 1-36.

Nolan, C., & Stitzlein, S. M. (2011). Meaningful hope for teachers in times of high anxiety and low morale. Democracy and Education, 19(1), 2.

Piceci, L., Sgorlon A., & Peluso Cassese, F. (2020). Stress of teachers: the transition to distance learning during the covid/19. QTimes, webmagazine, XII, 3, 356-368.

Pulido-Martos, M., Lopez-Zafra, E., Estévez-López, F., & Augusto-Landa, J.M. (2016). The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers. The Spanish Journal of Psychology,19, E7. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2016.8

Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1), 39-50.

Roeser, R. W., Horn-Keller, P., Stadick, M., & Urdan, T. (2012). Teaching, learning and transfer in a mindfulnessbased stress reduction program for teachers. In meeting of American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Taylor, C., & Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results From Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787.

Schunk, D. H., & Meece, J. L. (2006). Self-Efficacy Development in Adolescence. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, (pp. 71-96). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Job Stress and Burnout: Mediation Analyses. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 152–171.

Sezgin, F., & Erdogan, O. (2015). Academic Optimism, Hope and Zest for Work as Predictors of Teacher Self-efficacy and Perceived Success. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(1), 7-19.

Sirigatti, S., & Stefanile, C. (1993). Adattamento e taratura per l’Italia. In C. Maslach & S. Jackson, MBI Maslach Burnout Inventory, Manuale, (pp. 33-42). Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 611-625.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011a). Teacher Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession: Relations with School Context, Feeling of Belonging, and Emotional Exhaustion.Teaching andTeacher Education, 27, 1029-1038.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011b). Teachers’ Feeling of Belonging, Exhaustion, and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Goal Structure and Value Consonance. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping: An international Journal, 24, 369-385.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2015). Job Satisfaction, Stress, and Coping Strategies in the Teaching Profession. What Do the Teachers Say? International Education Studies, 8, 181-192.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al.(1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.

Snyder, C. R., Irving, L. M., & Anderson, J. R. (1991). Hope and health. Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective, 162, 285-305.

Sobol-Kwapinska, M., Jankowski, T., & Przepiorka, A. (2016). What do we gain by adding time perspective to mindfulness? Carpe Diem and mindfulness in a temporal framework. Personality and individual differences, 93, 112-117.

Stoeber, J., & Rennert, D. (2008). Perfectionism in SchoolTeachers: Relations with Stress Appraisals, Coping Styles, and Burnout. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 21(1), 37-53.

Sucan, S. (2019).The Relationship between Hope and Perceived Stress inTeacher Candidates. International Journal of Higher Education, 8(2), 1-6.

Tremblay, M. A., & Messervey, D. (2011). The job demands-resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(2), 1-10.

Verešová, M., & Malá, D. (2012) Stress, Proactive Coping and Self- Efficacy of Teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 55, 294-300.

Wentzel, K. R. (2010). Students’ relationships with teachers. In J. L. Meece & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Handbook of research on schools, schooling, and human development (pp. 75-91). New York, NY: Routledge.




How to Cite

Mariani, A. M., Piceci, L., & Melchiori, F. M. (2020). Protective factors for teachers’ work stress: psychoeducational programs based on self-efficacy and hope to reinforce personal resources. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, (25), 127-136.