Accountability e inclusione: una contraddizione chiave del sistema scolastico italiano


  • Gianluca Consoli
  • Giordana Szpunar



This paper focuses on the relationship between accountability and inclusion in the Italian school
system. It argues that this relationship constitutes an actual contradiction that threatens the
effectiveness of inclusive processes. On the basis of scientific results, researches and reflections
of inclusive studies, school good practice, and the relevant norms about inclusion, the paper
suggests that the key principle of the Italian inclusion system, that is the personalization-individualization
realized through the common planning of learning objectives, is not implemented
in its authentic form, as a complex, multiple and multifaceted process. The paper shows that the
impoverished realization of the key principle is a consequence of the control and standardization
instances derived from the external accountability system, and in particular from the form and
logic of central exams evaluation.






I. RIFLESSIONE TEORICA (a. incontro con la storia; b. questioni epistemologiche)